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Full text of "Fire technology abstracts"




ENGIN 


VOLUME 4 

Issue No. 6 
FEBRUARY 1982 


FIRE 

TECHNOLOGY 

ABSTRACTS 


depository; 

FEB 1 8 1982 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 
AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN 





Federal Emergency Management Agency 




*' 



VOLUME 4 

Issue No. 6 
FEBRUARY 1982 



FIRE 

TECHNOLOGY 
ABSTRACTS 




Federal Emergency Management Agency 

U.S. Fire Administration 

Data Dissemination and Use Division 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 

Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $2.75 (single copy), $3.45 foreign. Subscription 

Price : $15.00 ; $18.75 for foreign mailing. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 



http://archive.org/details/firetechnologyab46john 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1. GENERAL 

a. Fire Protection Organization 1 

b. Meetings and Professional Activities 2 

c. Literature and Notices 3 

d. Fire and Explosion Incident Critiques and Analy- 
ses 3 

e. Fire Science Education 7 

f . Legislation 7 

g. Public Education and Information 8 

h. Research and Development Programs 10 

2. DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF FIRE 

a. Fire Buildup, Propagation, and Spread 11 

b. Flammability, Ignition, and Extinction 12 

c. Flow of Combustion Products 14 

d. Instrumentation, Methodology, and Data Process- 
ing 14 

e. Meteorology 14 

f. Radiation 14 

g. Thermal Conductivity 15 

3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

a. Characteristics and Thermal Behavior 

of Materials 15 

b. Combustion, Explosion, and Flammability Tests 
and Methods 17 

c. Fire and Explosion Hazards of Materials 19 

d. Nature of Combustion Products 21 

e. Protection and Modification of Materials 21 

f . Stability of Materials at Elevated Temperatures 23 

4. FHtE MODELING AND TESTING 

a. Field Evaluation 23 

b. Fire Behavior 23 

c. Fire Testing of Components and Structures 26 

d. Fire Testing of Materials 26 

e. Modeling and Scaling 28 

5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

a. Building Design and Construction 29 

b. Detection and Alarm 31 

c. Evacuation Means and Escape Systems 33 

d. Extinguishing Agents, Additives, and Equip- 
ment 34 

e. Fire Loads and Heat Effects on Structures 36 

f. Fire Prevention and Hazard Reduction 38 

g. Pressure Effects on Structures 38 

h. Protective Components and Control Systems 38 

i. Water Supplies 41 



& FIRE SAFETY 

a. Agriculture and Wildlands 41 

b. Commercial Facilities 42 

c. Electrical. 42 

d. Industrial Facilities 43 

e. Institutional Facilities 45 

f . Mining 46 

g. Power Plants 46 

h. Public Facilities 47 

i. Residential Occupancies 47 

j. Transportation (Air, Rail, Road, Water) 47 

7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND 
FACILITIES 

a. Administration, Organization, and Management. . 51 

b. Education and Training 53 

c. Facilities 54 

d. Fire Apparatus 55 

e. Information Systems 56 

f . Inspection 56 

g. Investigation and Reporting 56 

h. Personal Equipment 57 

i. Personnel Affairs 58 

j. Public Relations 60 

k. Tools, Appliances, and General Equipment 60 

& FIREGROUND OPERATIONS 

a. Communications and Signalling 61 

b. Evacuation and Rescue 61 

c. Hydraulics and Water Flows 62 

d. Operational Problems: Command and Control .... 62 

e. Special Equipment 62 

f. Tactics 63 

ft PLANNING 

a. Budgeting 64 

b. Logistics 64 

c. Operations Analysis 64 

10. HUMAN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL 
PROBLEMS 

a. Arson 65 

b. Combustion Toxicology 69 

c. Emergency Medical Services and Facilities 71 

d. Injuries and Fatalities 71 

e. Physiology 72 

f. Psychology 72 



iii 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



11. CODES, STANDARDS, SAFE HANDLING, b. Losses 77 

IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS c. Restoration 77 

a. Codes 72 d. Risk Management 77 

b. Hazards Identification 72 e. Salvage 78 

c. Safe Handling of Hazardous Materials 73 

d. Standards 76 13. STATISTICS 78 

12. INSURANCE, ECONOMICS OF LOSS AND AUTHOR INDEX 80 

PREVENTION 

a. Insurance 77 SUBJECT INDEX 83 



iv 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Technology Abstracts is an abstracts journal pre- 
pared bimonthly by the Clearinghouse Services Division 
of Informatics Inc, Rockville, Maryland 20852 USA, 
under the sponsorship of the Federal Emergency Manage- 
ment Agency. United States Fire Administration. 

SCOPE AND COVERAGE 

The aim of Fire Technology Abstracts is to provide a 
comprehensive reference to the applied fire literature in 
the broad range of topics outlined in the "Table of 
Contents." Most topics are covered fully; a few topics, 
such as forest fires and mine fires, are referenced 
selectively, because they are covered systematically in 
other specialized indexing and abstracting serials. For 
such topics an appropriate notice has been entered under 
the respective category. 

The information contained in Fire Technology Ab- 
stracts has been selected from a wide variety of sources 
(journals, books, reports, patents, codes and standards, 
conference proceedings, dissertations), with particular 
reference to prevention and service-oriented literature. 
English-language literature predominates, but coverage 
does include selected entries from world fire literature. 

FORMAT 

The Journal is arranged in two sections: Abstracts and 
Indexes. 

The Abstracts section contains the complete biblio- 
graphic information required for locating each item, and 
a brief summary or abstract of its content. The patent 
citations also supply the U.S. Patent class, international 
class if applicable, filing and disclosure dates, priorities, 
and assignee(s). Abstracts are classified under the 13 
main categories listed in the "Table of Contents" and a 
flexible number of subcategories which can be revised if 
necessary for finer classification. The category and subca- 
tegory headings, paged-keyed in the "Table of Contents," 
are repeated on the pages of the abstracts section to assist 
the reader in rapid identification of any topical field of 
interest. 

The Index section contains an author index and a 
subject index. 

The Author Index is an alphabetical list of all authors, 
whether principal or secondary, cited in the abstracts 
section. 

The Subject Index lists key words related to the Fire 
Technology content of all documents. Subentries are 
listed for further clarification of specific topics covered 



and include an abstract number for easy referral to 
relevant citation(s). 

The citations and indexes are prepared using the CSIV 
composition system developed by Informatics. All but the 
subject index are produced directly from the printed 
portion of the entries. The subject index terms are keyed 
at the end of each citation, but are then sorted and 
printed only in the subject index. The final edited file is 
reformatted to drive electronic photocomposing equip- 
ment. 

AVAILABILITY 

Fire Technology Abstracts is a literature announce- 
ment service only and cannot respond to requests for the 
documents announced in the journal. For all literature 
citations, an effort is made to provide the information 
needed by the reader to acquire the document. In general, 
however, the full text of many of the journal articles cited 
in the FTA can be purchased through the Original Article 
Tear Sheet service (registered trademark OATS) of the 
Institute for Scientific Information (registered ISI) in 
Philadelphia, PA. 

For books, monographs, conference papers, and proceed- 
ings the source is, in most cases, either the publisher or 
the sponsoring organization. 

Dissertations are available in xerographic copy from 
University Microfilms of Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

Patents can be obtained from the U.S. Patent Office. 

U.S. Reports are available for a fee from the National 
Technical Information Service (NTIS) or from the U.S. 
Government Printing Office (GPO). If availability is not 
indicated, the issuing organization should be queried. 

ADDRESSES 



NTIS 



Firebase 



National Technical Information 

Service 
5285 Port Royal Road 
PO Box 1553 
Springfield, VA 22161 

Firebase Operations Center 
Boise Interagency Fire Center 
3905 Vista Avenue 
Boise, ID 83705 
Telephone: (208) 384-9457 
FTS: 554-9457 



GPO 



FEMA 



OATS 



Superintendant of Documents 

US Government Printing Office Pat Off 

Washington, DC 20402 

Federal Emergency 

Management Agency SFPE 

United States Fire 

Administration 
National Fire Data Center 

Publications Branch Univ Micro 

Washington, DC 20472 

Institute for Scientific 

Information BOM 

325 Chestnut Street 
Philadelphia, PA 19106 



Commissioner of Patents and 

Trademarks 
Washington, DC 20231 

Society of Fire Protection 

Engineers 
60 Batterymarch Street 
Boston, MA 02100 

University Microfilms 
300 North Zeeb Road 
Ann Arbor, MI 48106 

Bureau of Mines 
Publications Distribution 
4800 Forbes Ave. 
Pittsburgh, PA 15213 



VI 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Volume 4, Number 6 



February 1982 



GENERAL 



a. FIRE PROTECTION ORGANIZATION 

1703 

SWEEPING CHANGES SUGGESTED FOR BRIT- 
AIN'S FIRE PROTECTION 

Anon. 

Fire International 6(68):53-58, September 1980. 

An official "discussion document," published by the 
British government, suggests drastic changes in the 
methods of fire protection in that country. The Fire 
Precautions Act of 1971 sets requirements that certain 
occupancies must meet before they are permitted to 
operate. The costs involved in enforcing the act and in 
complying with its costly requirements has risen dramati- 
cally. The discussion document requires that cost-effec- 
tiveness be considered when applying the criteria of the 
Act. Other points made include: attention should be 
directed to the development of safer upholstery foams; 
fire prevention publicity ads seem to represent more of an 
act of faith by the government than a justifiable expendi- 
ture; and research identified as most fruitful should be 
pursued. Dissatisfaction was also expressed over the 
current deployment of fire service resources in Britain. 
The document presents a study of the statistical risks 
involved with certain types of property classifications, 
which are discussed in some detail. 

1704 

EUROFEU, A MEANS OF INTERNATIONAL CO- 
OPERATION 

Rochat, F. 

Fire International 6(68):62-63, September 1980 (Ger- 
man, French, English). 

The development, aims, and organization of the EURO- 
FEU organization of fire protection and disaster control 
equipment manufacturers and installers is described. 
Organized in 1969, there are now 13 European countries 
involved with the aim of promoting high standards, 
standardization, and cooperation on technical matters. A 



EUROFEU general assembly will convene on November 
27, 1980 and new statutes and rules of procedure will be 
presented and decided upon. A flow diagram illustrates 
the EUROFEU organization chart. 

1705 

PRIVATE VERSUS PUBLIC FIRE PROTECTION 

Anon. 

The International Fire Chief 46(ll):24-26, Novem- 
ber 1980. 

A planning guide and checklist, prepared by the 
Western Fire Chiefs Association, for comparing the 
benefits of publically versus privately provided fire pro- 
tection services is presented. The guide and checklist are 
intended as tools for use by local communities in defining 
their fire protection needs and evaluating proposed fire 
protection plans. The checklist addresses such compari- 
sons as commitment to fire protection, organizational 
credentials, liability, and comprehensive planning for fire 
protection services. A survey questionnaire, prepared 
from the United States Fire Administration, "Basic Guide 
for Fire Protection Planning," is briefly discussed. The 
survey questionnaire is provided as a guide in assessing a 
community's required level of fire protection. 

1706 

A BREAK WITH TRADITION 

Purdie, R.K. 

Fire Chief 24(12):32-33, December 1980. 

A reorganization of Rialto, California's Building and 
Safety Department and their Fire Department is dis- 
cussed. The reorganization involved merging these two 
departments, in response to Proposition 13 and other 
economic constraints, thus saving money, reducing bu- 
reaucratic red tape, increasing efficiency, and improving 
communication among various public agencies. Under the 
new arrangement, the fire department now provides 
increased fire safety input during the building design 
stage through the interdepartmental Development Re- 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



General 



view Committee. Other benefits are described and the 
possible use of this approach in other communities is 
suggested. 

1707 

EURALARM LINKS EUROPEAN MANUFAC- 
TURERS 

Levoyer, J. 

Fire International 1980(69):58-59, December 1980. 

An association established in 1970, linking fire alarm 
and detection system manufacturers in Europe, is de- 
scribed. The association, called Euralarm, has members 
from Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Holland, 
Italy, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United 
Kingdom. The association established articles to provide 
for the following: 1) exchange of information between 
members; 2) the production of standards and recommen- 
dations on codes of practice; 3) co-operation in the 
drafting of test and approval recommendations; 4) the 
support of independent research and test institutions; 5) 
the promotion of technological development; 6) informing 
the public of the activities of members by participating at 
exhibitions and by holding international seminars; 7) the 
cultivation of relations with the insurance associations; 8) 
and collaboration with other associations in the same 
industry. 

The group's organization consists of a president and a 
four member executive committee, which is responsible 
for the operation of the secretariat, and ten working 
groups. The members of the working groups are drawn 
from the various national associations to provide the 
required expertise. 

b. MEETINGS AND PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES 

1708 

FLAMMABILITY OF MATERIALS AND THE 

USE OF FIRE RETARDANTS 

Allender, P.J. 

Fire Protection 43(520):13-14, November 1980. 

Summaries of studies on materials, flame retardants, 
test methods and fire safety discussed at the recent 
European Conference of Flammability and Fire Retar- 
dants held in Frankfurt, Germany are presented. Papers 
presented showed that polypropylene chairs of the lowest 
flammability produce more smoke when a stack was 
ignited than similar chairs of slightly higher flammabil- 
ity. Results of another study found that the interaction of 
various fabric additives inhibit flame retardants. Studies 
on timber flame retardants indicate that such retardants 
may increase CO output by not reducing smoldering 
while increasing charring. Other papers examined such 
topics as: the development of WISTEL-FR, a new polyes- 
ter fiber of low flammability; current available methods 
of improving textile flame retardancy; polymer protection 



via intumescent additives; calorimeter measurement of 
fabric burn potential; multiple testing of fabrics; correc- 
tions for smoke density data; the "catastrophe theory" of 
ignition and extinction; and protection of plastic tubes 
passing through walls. 

1709 

VOLUNTEERS SET PRIORITIES FOR HELP 

FROM USFA AT NATIONAL WORKSHOP 

Sylvia, D. 

Fire Engineering 133(10):42, 44-45, October 1980. 

The Second National Workshop for Volunteer Fire 
Service was held on August 8-10, 1980, at the National 
Fire Academy (NFA). The workshop, called Stonebridge 
II, was conducted by the National Volunteer Fire Council 
under the sponsorship of the NFA, in cooperation with 
the International Association of Fire Chiefs and the 
International Association of Fire Service Instructors. 
Hazardous materials, business management, training, 
and EMS were voted the top priority areas for assistance 
from the United States Fire Administration. Highlights 
of the priority selection process and discussions about 
course devleopment, volunteer training of NFA, third 
service EMS, emergency management, Operation Dixie- 
land, European fire losses, and the future of the volunteer 
fire service are presented. 

1710 

FOURTEENTH BI-ANNUAL MEETING OF CIB 

COMMISSION W-14 (FIRE) MAY 19-23, 1980 

Gross, D. 

National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of 

Commerce, Washington, D.C., NBSIR 80-2136, 60 

pages, October 1980. 

A summary of the discussions held during the 1980 
Meeting of CIB (International Council For Building 
Research) Commission W-14 on Fire in Athens, Greece, is 
presented. Forty-eight delegates from 14 countries ex- 
changed information during Group and Plenary Meetings 
in which the following topics were covered: building 
codes; fire costs; fire loss statistics; fire engineering 
education; structural fire protection (including material 
properties, classification of structures, calculation rules, 
and full-scale fire tests); smoke control and emission; and 
mathematical modeling. Three workshops, planned for 
1981, will cover: fire safety design, fire engineering 
education, and modeling of fires. Papers circulated to 
delegates during the last two years are listed as refer- 
ences. 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



General 



1711 

FIRE SAFETY CONTROL — THE TIME FOR 

CHANGE? 

Anon. 

Fire Prevention 1980(139):5-7, December 1980. 

At the 1980 Firetech Conference, (sponsored by the 
Institution of Fire Engineers, Chief and Assistant Chief 
Fire Officers' Association, and the Fire Protection Associ- 
ation), fire safety control, especially as it relates to the 40 
statutes covering fire prevention in Great Britain, was 
the main topic considered. Specific suggestions made in 
papers presented are included, and a possible new Fire 
Precautions Act, which would place more of the burden 
for fire safety compliance on the industrial occupier, 
where the highest losses are incurred, is discussed. 
Industries would have to contact the fire service and get a 
required inspection before beginning operation. It is also 
suggested that new performance legislation be written in 
easily understood terms. A trend towards greater self- 
regulation and problem identification is noted, which 
would relieve the Fire Service of some of the administra- 
tive burdens of providing fire protection. The develop- 
ment of in-house fire attack capabilities for industrial 
complexes, which could operate until fire companies 
responded, is also urged. 

1712 

INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR ON HUMAN BE- 
HAVIOUR IN FIRES 

Marchant, E.W. 

Fire International 1980(69):44-45, December 1980. 

The third International Seminar on "Human Behavi- 
our in Fire," held in Edinburgh, Scotland, in September 
1980, is reviewed. Previous, current, and future work in 
this aspect of fire safety were discussed. The objective of 
the seminar was to consider the behavioral research 
conducted in the 1970's and to propose how such work can 
be validated and presented for use by those professionals 
concerned with the interaction of people, fire, and build- 
ings. Two publications, Fire and Human Behaviour.and 
Proceedings of the Second International Seminar, were 
reviewed and discussed. Several researchers reported on 
findings that contradicted present provisions for fire 
safety based on fire incident analysis of human behavior. 
Eleven aspects of fire-related human behavior were 
chosen as in need of continued research effort. Arrange- 
ments were made to hold the Fourth International 
Seminar in Ottawa (Canada), in the spring of 1982. 

C. LITERATURE AND NOTICES 

[No entries] 



d. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INCIDENT CRITIQUES 
AND ANALYSES 

1713 

50-DEATH TERMINAL DISASTER CAUSED BY 

FIRE ON TANKER 

Anon. 

Fire 73(903):175-177, September 1980. 

The results of an inquiry into a fire on an oil tanker on 
January 8, 1979, which cost the lives of 50 people in 
Bantry Bay, County Cork, Erie, are summarized. The 
companies involved were severely criticized for actions 
they had taken which were felt to have contributed to the 
severity of the accident. The fire involved several explo- 
sions, one of which was massive, killing all of the crew, 
passengers of the ship, and members of a crew on an 
offshore jetty. A tribunal was established to investigate 
the accident. The tribunal's conclusions for the responsi- 
bility for the disaster were: 1) the seriously weakened hull 
of the ship was the result of deliberate management 
decisions of the Total Oil Company, therefore, the major 
share of responsibility for loss of the ship lies with the 
management of Total; 2) if the dispatcher has observed 
the initiation of the disaster, many lives could have been 
saved; 3) if Gulf Oil had maintained the tug boat closer to 
the jetty, many lives might have bten saved; 4) Gulf had 
not supplied suitable escape craft; 5) the access from 
Dolphin I was not maintained properly and the jetty crew 
were not properly trained in emergency procedures; 6) 
the automatically-pressurized fire main had been discon- 
tinued precluding fire-fighting efforts; 7) the alert was not 
raised at the beginning of the disaster; and, 8) the tug 
could have removed the ship from the jetty if it had been 
moored in sight of the ship. 

Changes in the fire protection system at the jetty also 
were criticized. The report of the tribunal concluded that 
the original fire protection measures were superior to 
those that existed at the time of the fire. 

1714 

MULTI-MILLION LOSS AT IRAQI TELEPHONE 

CABLE FACTORY 

Oettli, E. 

Fire International 6(68):30-32, September 1980. 

A multi-million dollar fire loss in an almost-completed 
telephone cable manufacturing plant in An Nasiriya, Iraq 
is analyzed. The fire began in one of the heating elements 
in the bituminizing room. The on-site fire brigade re- 
sponded and applied the available water in their truck to 
the fire, even though they had been instructed not to use 
water on this type of fire. Since the fire mains were not 
yet operative, the brigade had to travel to an Nasiriya, 
about 5 km away, to refill their truck. Mutual aid was 
then called but could not be of much assistance due to the 
lack of available water. The fire spread quickly through 
the building aided by the roof materials and flammable 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



General 



film covering the water-cooling pipes. Stored flammable 
materials also caused secondary fires, increasing the fire 
spread. The use of water to extinguish the heating oil fire 
increased the spread of combustion of the mineral oil 
products in the bituminizing room. The building was not 
equipped with a fire detection system. 

It was concluded that the lack of an early warning 
system, poor fire protection, and the easily ignitable 
materials used in the construction of so large a plant gave 
the fire free play resulting in the enormous amount of 
damage. 

1715 

SAN FRANCISCO ARSONIST STRIKES ABAN- 
DONED DOWNTOWN APARTMENTS 

Banks, S.W. 

Western Fire Journal 32(9): 18-20, September 1980. 

Events related to a June 1980 fire in an abandoned 
apartment building near downtown San Francisco, which 
caused $100,000 in damages and snarled morning rush 
hour traffic, are described. The fire was first reported at 
8:40 a.m. and required three alarms, the third as a strictly 
precautionary measure due to the wood-frame exposures. 
A total of 97 firefighters battled the fire for forty minutes 
before it was brought under control. A suspect was 
arrested in connection with the fire. 

1716 

BLEVE THREAT AND MAJOR FIRE HIT UNI- 

FLITE LUXURY BOAT WORKS 

Neale, R. 

Western Fire Journal 32(9):14-17, 21, September 

1980. 

Events related to an April, 1980, waterfront boat- 
building plant fire in Bellingham, Washington, are de- 
scribed. The plant suffered more than $8 million in 
damages and severely strained the city's fire fighting 
resources. Firefighters were notified by an automatic 
alarm, and the second alarm rang only 90 seconds after 
the first. The first-in company, stationed five blocks away, 
could see the fire while enroute. Water pressure in the 
yard was low because the automatic sprinklers were 
working. Due to the large size, heavy fire load and 
involvement of the fire, the main building was allowed to 
burn while efforts were concentrated on cooling tanks in 
the yard which contained flammable and toxic materials. 
The cooling efforts succeeded and there was no explosion. 
Off-duty personnel were called in to relieve firefighters. 
Due to the amount of damage sustained it was difficult to 
determine the cause of the fire. To avoid a similiar 
calamity in the future, the Bellingham Fire Department 
is listing major businesses in their response area, and 
plans to step up company inspection and pre-fire plan- 
ning. 



1717 

24 RESIDENTS DIE IN HOTEL FIRE. LIFE 
SAFETY CODE VIOLATIONS PROBABLY CON- 
TRIBUTED TO THEIR DEATHS 

Bell, J.R.; Demers, D.P. 

Fire Command 47(12):16-19, December 1980. 

A fire in a Bradley Beach (New Jersey) hotel, in June 
1980, which claimed the lives of 24 of the 38 residents, is 
analyzed. The layout of the 3-story building, the fire 
alarm systems, and general background of the occupancy, 
which housed mostly elderly persons, some of whom were 
mentally retarded, are discussed. Possible evacuation 
routes and fire drill procedures are listed. It is noted that 
a request for permission to operate a state "shelter-care 
facility" had been denied; the petition was dropped 
because of the extensive improvements required. Details 
of the fire origin in a concealed area of the basement 
ceiling, the rapid spread to the second and third floors, 
the activation of the fire alarms, and the problems of 
evacuation, are given. This report emphasizes that an 
occupancy classification may not adequately reflect the 
functional use of a building or the characteristics of its 
residents. A layout of the hotel, showing point of fire 
origin, is included. An analysis of the life safety problems 
of this incident, based on 1976 NFPA standards, will be 
published in the March 1981 Fire Journal. 

1718 

500 SAFELY EVACUATED IN MONTREAL HOS- 
PITAL FIRE 

Best, R. 

Fire Journal 74(6):26-31, November 1980. 

A hospital fire requiring the evacuation of 500 patients 
is described. The event took place on May 30, 1980 at 
Notre Dame Hospital in Montreal, Quebec. Smoke from 
the fire, which broke out in a subbasement, spread to the 
upper floors of the facility through unprotected dumb- 
waiter shafts, thus forcing the evacuation. A background 
on the incident is provided and a chronological account of 
the fire department's response is given. An analysis of the 
event, with regard to the NFPA Life Safety Code, is also 
presented. According to the analysis, lack of automatic 
extinguishing systems, unprotected service openings, and 
improper actions by hospital personnel all contributed to 
the severity of the blaze. 

1719 

FLAMMABLE LIQUID DELIVERIES CAUSE 
EXPLOSIONS AND FIRES IN TWO MICHIGAN 
BULK STORAGE PLANTS 

Anon. 

Fire Journal 74(6):32-33, 93, November 1980. 

Two remarkably similar fire incidents which occurred 
in the same town, in the same month, under similar 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



General 



circumstances are described. The events both took place 
in Pittsfield Township, Michigan, in June 1979 and 
involved the ignition of flammable liquids during night- 
time delivery to bulk storage facilities. The first incident, 
on June 7, involved accidental leakage of gasoline which 
subsequently ignited causing fires and explosions of the 
gasoline and other flammables on the site. In the second 
incident, on June 26. liquid propane was being delivered 
resulting in a similar accident. In both cases, human 
error and mechanical failure were the cause of the fire. 
Other similaritie*s are noted, and the local fire depart- 
ment's response to each incident is discussed. 

1720 

RIYADH DISASTER UNDERLINES PROBLEMS 

OF AIRCRAFT FIRES 

Horsfall, J. 

Fire 73(904):235-237, October 1980. 

Various aircraft fire incidents, including one that 
occurred in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, killing all 301 passen- 
gers and crew, are described to highlight the problems of 
aircraft fire safety. Statistics are presented which indi- 
cate that 71 percent of deaths in all air transport 
accidents are due to fire. The types of fires discussed 
include both cabin furniture fires and post-crash fuel 
fires. Several methods of combating aircraft fires, such as 
application of aqueous film forming foam (AFFF), are 
also reviewed. 

1721 

FIRES IN SUPERMARKETS 

Anon. 

Fire Prevention 1980(138):25-26, October 1980. 

Short, illustrated summaries are presented of five 
recent large loss fires which occurred in the United 
Kingdom. The three leading causes of fires in supermar- 
kets are electrical, malicious ignition and careless dispos- 
al of smoking materials. These types of occupancies, with 
open design and higher values at risk, present a greater 
possibility of small fires spreading and causing extensive 
damage than the smaller shops which they have replaced. 

1722 

NO BOUNDARIES. A FLORIDA BLAZE SHOWS 
THAT HIGH-RISE FIRES ARE NOT CONFINED 
TO BIG CITIES 

Hyre, T.C. 

Firehouse 5(9):79-80, September 1980. 

Events related to a bedroom fire which occurred on the 
20th floor of a 22-story building in Daytona Beach, 
Florida, on May 2, 1980 are reported. The fire was 
handled by 16 firefighters within 40 minutes without any 
injuries, all residents of the apartment building having 
been evacuated without incident. Effective compartmen- 



tation and traffic control eased firefighting operations. 
The need was cited for central alarms and more powerful 
portable radios. 

1723 

ANATOMY OF A FIRE: SUBWAY TRAIN AT 

THE HAMBURG-ALTONA STATION 

Stapelfeldt, J.-P. 

VFDB 29(4):134-138, November 1980 (German). 

Development and propagation of a fire in a subway 
train at an underground station having tracks on several 
levels is described. The fire started shortly before the 
train pulled into the station. Police later determined the 
fire's cause to be arson. The train entered the station with 
a seat burning in one car. Fire spread rapidly through the 
roof of the car to another car. The cars on fire burned out 
completely in a very short time. An attempt at fire 
control using an extinguisher was unsuccessful. Very 
dense smoke filling two track levels and pouring out into 
the street forced firefighters to evacuate all people before 
attacking the fire. Fire tests confirmed that seat and 
backrest upholstery was responsible for the rapid propa- 
gation and intensity of the fire. Smoke presented an 
additional hazard for passengers, station personnel and 
firefighters. The latter became disoriented in the dense 
smoke and exhausted the air supply in their airpressure 
respirators. Based on the experience gained, a review is 
urged of the tactical fire control and fire prevention 
measures used in underground transportation facilities. 

1724 

BLOWOUT PROBE TRACES CHAIN OF 

EVENTS 

LeBlanc, L. 

Offshore 40(14):121, 124, December 1980. 

An explosion and fire incident aboard an offshore 
drilling rig, off the coast of South Marsh Island, is 
described. The event, which took place on March 5, 1980, 
resulting in the death of eight crew members, was caused 
by a gas surge in a development well being drilled. 
Apparently successful steps taken by the drilling crew to 
circulate gas out of the drilling mud, solidify a formation 
fracture, and halt the gas flow, later proved otherwise 
when flammable vapors entered the rig's living quarters, 
was ultimately ignited, and exploded. Details of the 
events leading up to the explosion are presented, and a 
diagram of how the gas reached the mud pit and 
atmosphere is included. 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



General 



1725 

A REVIEW OF FIRE INCIDENTS RELATED TO 

WOOD-BURNING APPLIANCES 

Peacock, R.D. 

Fire Journal 74(6):58-63, 93, November 1980. 

A survey of about 11,800 fire accidents and deaths 
related to the use of wood-burning equipment was exam- 
ined to determine the risks involved with their use, 
accident patterns, and priorities for future research. Data 
sources for the survey are listed including the U.S. Fire 
Administration, The National Electronic Injury Surveil- 
lance System, and the National Fire Protection Associa- 
tion. Graphs show a breakdown of the fires by cause of the 
fire and resulting dollar losses. The survey shows that the 
majority of the accidents are due to improper and unsafe 
installation and use. Young children were involved in 
many of the incidents and almost twice the number of 
males as females were involved. Only 159 injuries and 65 
deaths were reported for non-fire service persons out of 
all the incidents examined. The major areas of concern 
with regard to wood-burning fire safety are ignition of 
adjacent combustibles, use with improper or defective 
chimneys, and ignition of building exterior by sparks 
escaping from the chimney. Future research is required 
to insure that relevant codes and standards remain 
current and that the consumer is receiving correct 
information on the safe use of wood-burning appliances. 

1726 

LESSONS OF A LARGE FIRE IN A GERMAN 

RESEARCH INSTITUTE 

Bormann, M. 

Fire International 1980(69):53-57, December 1980. 

A large fire in the physics department of the Max- 
Planck Institute Research Center in Garching, Germany 
is discussed. The building was part of a public construc- 
tion project and therefore was exempt from normal 
building permission and approval procedures. The build- 
ing was equipped with a push-button fire alarm system, 
with smoke detectors in increased fire-risk areas. Fire 
extinguishers were placed throughout the building. Ex- 
periments were often conducted beyond normal working 
hours and the guards were not required to make routine 
security checks. No automatic extinguishing systems 
were provided. The fire was discovered by a researcher 
who attempted to extinguish the fire with a hand 
extinguisher but was not successful. Radiation was of 
major concern to the firefighting effort because of ra- 
dioactive materials in the building. A 10 m radial area 
was cleared for safety considerations. The fire spread 
rapidly through the rooms, aided by the suspended 
ceilings. The entire building was destroyed and the 
capacity of the physics department research was cut by 
about 20 percent. The storage and interior finish materi- 
als in the laboratories should have required a much 
greater degree of fire protection than was present. 



1727 

TANKER EXPLOSION COSTS 50 LIVES 

Anon. 

Fire International 1980(69):24-29, December 1980. 

Recommendations of the tribunal investigating the fire 
and explosions in the Betelgeuse disaster in Bantry Bay, 
Erie, (United Kingdom) are discussed, the most important 
being that all tankers over 20,000 tons deadweight used 
for carrying volatile liquids be required to be fitted with 
inerting gas systems to prevent the occurrence of fire and 
explosions. The fire and explosions aboard the MV 
Betelgeuse on November 24, 1978, claimed 50 lives, 
including the entire crew, a wife, two visitors, and the 
jetty crew. The fire was caused by a failure of the ship's 
hull due to improper ballasting. Fire protection aboard 
the ship had been partially abandoned because of mainte- 
nance problems and was not available to fight the fire. 
Explosions also damaged fire water mains and rendered 
them useless. Additionally, the lack of manning in the 
jetty control room contributed to the large loss of life. 

1728 

REPORT ON THE WOOLWORTH'S FIRE, MAN- 
CHESTER 

Anon. 

Fire Prevention 1980(138):13-24, October 1980. 

The May 8, 1979 fire in a Woolworth's store in 
Manchester (England), in which ten people died, is 
discussed. Building construction and the store layout, 
including violations to building regulations and the Fire 
Precautions Act, caused partly by major remodeling of 
the structure, are detailed, and a second floor diagram 
indicating area of fire origin and location of victims is 
included. The fireground operations, from the time of the 
first of 12 alarms (delay of alarm considered are impor- 
tant factor in development of fire) at about 1:30 p.m., 
until the fire was extinguished at approximately 6:00 
p.m., are reviewed. The extensive investigation into the 
cause of the fire (never definitely established), the proba- 
ble scenario of the fire's development, and the fire routine 
and training of store staff, are described, and suggested 
changes to existing legislation, which might prevent 
another such disaster, are listed. 

Results and conclusions of studies by the Fire Research 
Station, at the request of the Greater Manchester Fire 
Service, are reported for: 1) ignition tests of furniture 
similar to that which was present in the second floor 
display area of fire origin; 2) a full-scale fire test to 
determine development of a fire in the type of furniture 
and stacking arrangements present in the area of fire 
ignition; and 3) full-scale sprinkler tests, which showed 
that an adequate system would have been sufficient to 
control the fire. A summary of the sprinkler test results 
are presented in table form. A 19-item summary of 
conclusions and recommendations contained in the Home 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



General 



Office report completes the review, which also contains 
several fire photographs. 

1729 

COMPARTMENTATION VS. SPRINKLER— N.Y. 

HIGH-RISE FIRE REKINDLES DEBATE 

Mulrine, J.F. 

Fire Engineering 133(12):18-21, December 1980. 

A comparative look is taken at two fire protection 
approaches, compartmentation versus sprinkler systems, 
in light of the June 1980 Westvaco Building fire in New 
York City. Details of the building's construction and the 
effects of the five-alarm fire are given. City-wide sprin- 
kler experience. Local Law 5 (which legislated compart- 
mentation). effects of building tenancy, and fire econom- 
ics are considered in the discussion. Flaws in the compart- 
mentation approach are also reviewed. The fire's intensi- 
ty and associated high casualty rate were predicted by 
fire officials on the basis of their experience with previous 
compartment blazes. It is stated tbat weaknesses inher- 
ent in compartmentation contributed to the losses. 

1730 

£1 MILLION-PLUS FIRES IN WAREHOUSES 

1979-1980 

Anon. 

Fire Prevention 1980(139):20-21, December 1980. 

A brief statistical summary of large loss warehouse 
fires in the United Kingdom is accompanied by short 
descriptions of six of the largest fires. These six fires were 
caused by: 1) a roll of cloth not properly extinguished 
after the singing process; 2) malicious ignition following a 
clothing warehouse break-in; 3) arcing between primary 
terminals of electrical transformers; 4) a spark from an 
electric fork lift which ignited an LPG leak; 5) a spark 
from pipe-cutting operation's which ignited stored poly- 
styrene; and 6) polypropylene sacks ignited by hot metal 
droplets formed during metal cutting operations. Photo- 
graphs illustrate the damage caused by each of these 
fires. 

e. FIRE SCIENCE EDUCATION 

[No entries] 

f. LEGISLATION 

1731 

THE BANTRY BAY TANKER DISASTER 

Anon. 

Fire Prevention 1980(139):13-19, December 1980. 

An overview is presented of the findings of an Irish 
Government tribunal of inquiry which investigated the 
January 1979, explosion and fire on the oil tanker MV 



Betelgeuse near Whiddy Island in Bantry Bay. The 
supposed cause of this tragedy, which killed fifty people, 
was incorrect ballasting of the vessel during unloading 
operations. Details on the vessel, the nearby oil terminal, 
personnel, and firefighting equipment are given. The 
chronological sequence of events during the incident, and 
the ballasting of the vessel are reviewed. Photographs 
and diagrams illustrate the incident. 

1732 

THE FIRST LINE — WILL SPRINKLERS RE- 
PLACE THE FIRE SERVICE? 

Mulrine, J.F. 

Firehouse 5(11):68, 70, November 1980. 

Several local laws concerning expanded sprinkler us- 
age are presented, as is a list of communities with local 
fire sprinkler ordinances. The Fresno, California, Danger- 
ous Building Ordinance is discussed in light of its 
limitation of fire department expansion. New York City's 
Local Law 5, which requires retrofitting of existing 
buildings with a fire protection package including an 
automatic sprinkler system, is mentioned in reference to 
a NYC highrise fire which injured 127 firefighters. In San 
Clemente, California, where 87 percent of fires are 
residential, a fire sprinkler law is in effect. It would seem 
apparent that local fire sprinkler laws, or "municipal 
sprinklerization," will be an important aid in preventing 
fires, for fire departments facing increasingly curtailed 
budgets. 

1733 

DEFUSING THE FIREWORKS PROBLEM 

Cooksey, P.N. 

Fire Command 47(10):16-17, October 1980. 

Efforts taken by Oklahoma City (Oklahoma) to reduce 
the number of injuries and fires related to the use of 
fireworks are described. These efforts began in 1973 with 
the passage of an ordinance that banned the sale, 
possession, and use of fireworks within the city limits. As 
a results, 1974 and 1975 experienced markedly reduced 
injuries, fires, and property damage. However in 1976, a 
forced reduction in manpower at the citys' fire prevention 
bureau meant relaxed enforcement of the ordinance, and 
rising numbers of injuries and fires. This trend peaked in 
1979, resulting in a successful renewal of enforcement 
efforts. Statistics on fireworks-related injuries, fires, and 
property damage for the years 1970-1980 are given. 
Methods used to publicize and enforce the ordinance are 
also discussed. 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



General 



1734 

FLORIDA STATUTE 806.01: FLORIDA ARSON 
LAW— THE EVOLUTION OF THE 1979 AMEND- 
MENTS 

Smith, L.W. 

Florida State University Law Review 8:81-98, Win- 
ter 1980. 

Florida's 1979 arson law, one of the nations most 
comprehensive, which was passed because of a low arson 
arrest and conviction rate resulting from interpretive 
problems with common law arson statutes, is discussed. 
Problems experienced with the common law statutes are 
reviewed and the relationship between the new law and 
applicable common law is evaluated. A major problem 
with the common law statutes was that arson was viewed 
as a crime against the security of habitation; specifically, 
only the burning of a "dwelling house" was considered a 
crime. In addition, malicious intent had to be proved. 
While modifications to the statutes had sought to over- 
come these problems, it was felt that ultimately an 
entirely new law was required. The new law now defines 
the crime as either first degree arson, second degree 
arson, or arson by fire bomb. Each of these categories is 
addressed in detail, particularly as to its divergence from 
the previous common law. Selected court cases are noted 
to illustrate specific aspects of the old and new statutes. 

1735 

FIRE SAFETY — THE TIME FOR CHANGE 

Rudd, G.T. 

Fire Engineer's Journal 40(120):9-11, December 

1980. 

Serious life loss fires in the United Kingdom in the 
early 1970's resulted in the creation of the Committee on 
Fire Prevention Legislation. Some initial conclusions 
reached were: fire prevention legislation should be direct- 
ed to the protection of life and preventing fire spread; 
should have adequate structural fire precautions for 
premises not covered in building regulations; should 
apply to premises constituting actual and immediate fire 
risk and be extended to other buildings as necessary; and 
should be enforced by fire authorities. The Fire Precau- 
tions Act was passed in 1971, requiring fire certificates for 
more premises than expected, including 30,000 hotels and 
boarding houses, 80,000 factories, and 150,000 offices. By 
1977, changes were being considered to make the Act 
more manageble. Review of the Fire Precautions Act 
considered the cost of compliance and enforcement, life- 
saving potential possible and the extent fulfilled, and the 
costs and effects of any changes. Consumer protection 
laws, and health and safety at the workplace laws, are 
also reviewed. Changes envisioned would replace fire 
certification by a system of registration, and would place 
more responsibility on the occupant than the fire service 
for complaince, in order to free fire prevention resources 
for other more urgent areas of need. 



g. PUBLIC EDUCATION AND INFORMATION 

1736 

THERE IS A NEED TO REASSESS OUR CON- 
VICTIONS 

Moore, G.H. 

Fire Protection 43(519):20-24, October 1980. 

To reduce the number of fires and fire losses, it is 
emphasized that continued and extended efforts be made 
in the area of fire prevention, education, and training 
involving all sections of a community, particularly man- 
agement and employees in industry and commerce. A 
trinomial approach to fire prevention which combines the 
legislative, educational, and advisory aspects of the sub- 
jects is explained. Relative to the aforementioned objec- 
tives, the Lincolnshire Public Protection Committee es- 
tablished the Fire Prevention Advisory and Training 
Wing (FPA and TW) within the county fire brigade. The 
FPA and TW has established a Lincolnshire Fire Liaison 
Panel and branches of the FPA have been formed. In 
addition, fire prevention/safety courses and classes have 
been held for industry, commerce, local government, civic 
groups and the general public. Another aspect of the fire 
prevention program is the availability to local industry of 
replaced (but usable) fire appliances, offered on a free 
permanent loan basis. Further plans for promoting fire 
safety in the public, commercial and industrial spheres 
are discussed. 

1737 

WHEN THE PUBLIC WARMS UP TO WOOD 

STOVES 

Oliver, L. 

Western Fire Journal 32(12):25-27, December 1980. 

Because of the rising incidence of wood stove fires 
during 1978 and 1979, the Spokane (Washington) Fire 
Department formulated a three-pronged attack on the 
problem: public education, training of professionals in- 
volved, and legislation. In the area of public education, 
the fire department held workshops for citizens, devel- 
oped slide presentations, provided speakers for civic 
group meetings, participated in five area trade shows, 
mounted a news media campaign, and initiated a fire 
safety hot line to provide answers to residents' questions. 
For professionals, particularly those involved in wood 
stove installation and maintenance, the department has 
held workshops and classes for Fire and Building Code 
employees, fire company personnel, dealers, and the 
insurance community, to coordinate and explain applica- 
ble codes and installation procedures. Seven pieces of 
legislation drafted by the department, which are current- 
ly being reviewed by Spokane's Legal Department, are 
listed. 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



General 



1738 

THE F.P.E. 5-STEP PLANNING PROCESS 

Crawford, J. 

Western Fire Journal 52(10):25-26, October 1980. 

A five-step planning process which can be used for 
initiating a public fire education program is described. 
The first step, of identifying major fire problems, enables 
a fire department to prepare a specific education pro- 
gram. Next, objectives should be selected which consider 
audience, resources, costs, and benefits. As the third step, 
a program should be designed for the particular problem 
and audience being dealt with. Implementation, the 
fourth step, involves production or purchase of materials 
and training personnel. The fifth step, possibly the most 
important, is to evaluate the education program. Various 
problems associated with these programs, such as t data 
accumulation, budgeting, and public involvement are also 
discussed. 

1739 

FIRE PREVENTERS SET UP SHOP IN BUSY 

PUBLIC MALL SETTING 

Oliver, L. 

Western Fire Journal 32(10):17-19, October 1980. 

The benefits of using a shopping complex as the focal 
point for public education on fire prevention is exempli- 
fied by the King County (Washington) Fire District 39's 
extensive fire prevention program in their local shopping 
mall during Fire Prevention Week. Several booths are 
located at high traffic points down the length of the mall. 
At the children's booth, parents are invited to leave their 
children with the Ladies Auxiliary for 30 minutes of 
dressing up in fire gear, using a child-size fire truck, 
practicing "stop, drop and roll" while wearing "flaming" 
vests, crawling through a "smoke tunnel," and talking 
with a fire prevention hydrant. Another booth, the 
hazard "house," challenges shoppers to identify the fire 
hazards existing within a kitchen, a garage, and a 
bedroom. The wood stove safety booth presents a display 
on proper stove installation and samples of materials 
approved for reducing stove clearance as well as person- 
nel to answer questions and distribute literature. 

Also included are informational offerings on burn 
prevention, sign-ups for CPR courses, free blood pressure 
checks and new and antique fire apparatus positioned 
between other displays. Promotion of the fire safety 
activities is provided by the local newspapers and radio 
stations. 



1740 

SUCCESSFUL LOCAL PUBLIC ED PROGRAMS 

MADE AVAILABLE NATIONWIDE BY PEAP 

Brogden, C. 

Fire Engineering 133(9):37-42, September 1980. 

The Public Education Assistance Program (PEAP) 
administered through the Office of Planning and Educa- 
tion (OPE) of the United States Fire Administration is 
discussed. PEAP's purpose is to aid states in developing 
and improving their capabilities to provide communities 
with leadership, information and materials, and technical 
assistance in planning, implementing, and evaluating 
public fire education programs. The thirteen states cur- 
rently participating in the PEAP program are listed. 
Federal funding is available for Phase I, planning, and 
Phase Ha and lib, implementation and evaluation of 
PEAP. Aspects of state PEAP plans are explained includ- 
ing: state grants to local fire departments; catologs of 
existing program packages and resource exchange bulle- 
tins published by various states; resource centers; and 
public fire education conferences, courses and workshops. 
Also described are OPE's Public Education Resource 
Exchange Bulletin, the manual "Public Fire Education 
Planning: A Five Step Process," and smoke detector 
seminars. 

1741 

MARKETING STRATEGIES GET RESULTS IN 

SAFETY EDUCATION 

Cooksey, P.N. 

Fire Engineering 133(9):31-32, September 1980. 

The marketing of fire safety by combining elements of 
effective teaching and advertising is discussed. One 
suggested method is using slogans, mascots or logos, and 
the media to communicate problems and solutions, needs 
and products. However, it is noted that educators must be 
able to distinguish between public relation slogans which 
popularize a specific fire department or general fire 
safety slogans such as "learn not to burn," and those 
which influence safe behavior such as "crawl below 
smoke." Fire educators must exhaust every avenue of 
exposure for their logo and slogans to have an effective 
marketing campaign. Of prime importance is the fire 
education of children who in turn carry the message 
home to motivate their parents. The use of the mascot 
"Ferbie the Fire Prevention Frog" by Oklahoma City is 
described as an example of such a marketing campaign. 
The use of an animal logo is suggested, since animals are 
raceless, ageless, and in some cases, sexless and, there- 
fore, can enter any environment or be exposed to any 
audience mixture. 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



General 



1742 

TO TEACH PRESCHOOLERS SAEETY, USEA 

EXPLORES ROUTE ON "SESAME STREET" 

Maguire, H.M. 

Fire Engineering 133(9):22-26, September 1980. 

Results of research by the Children's Television Work- 
shop (CTW), producers of "Sesame Street," on the best 
methods of presenting fire safety messages on television 
to the preschool child, ages 2 to 5, are presented. CTW 
found that the options available are limited because: 
preschoolers are not skilled in holding one or more 
options in their mind while they weigh factors or choose a 
best response; preschoolers have a limited vocabulary and 
therefore may not understand terms commonly used in 
fire safety messages; and preschoolers are notorious 
imitators and may copy a negative visual rather than 
listen to the accompanying message emphasizing "don't." 
Other problems related to teaching the young about 
evacuation from a burning building, reporting fires, 
clothing fires, and crawling under smoke are also dis- 
cussed. A model curriculum developed by CTW for fire 
educators and writers is outlined, the key to which is 
simplicity. Eight messages now being used on "Sesame 
Street" are described. 

1743 

EDUCATION BETTER THAN LEGISLATION 

Moore, G.H. 

Fire 73(904):255-256, October 1980. 

Public education activites, as opposed to legislative 
efforts, are stressed as a viable and necesssary approach 
to reducing fire-related injuries, deaths, and economic 
losses. Fire-loss statistics for the United Kingdom are 
summarized and information on representative public 
education campaigns is presented. The Fire Prevention 
Advisory and Training Wing is specifically discussed. 
Activities by this group include fire prevention safety 
instruction given to management and staff in industry, 
commerce, and local government through talks, film 
shows, demonstrations, exhibits, and other promotional 
activities. Of particular interest is a mobile fire preven- 
tion training base, built from an old emergency tender. 
Photographs of the base are included. Other approaches 
such as publicity campaigns, equipment recycling pro- 
grams, and fire-safety competitions are also covered. 

1744 

CONSUMER RESEARCH ON FURNITURE 

FLAMMABILITY 

Rucker, M.H.; McGee, K.M.; Hughes, R.K., et al. 
Journal of Consumer Product Flammability 7:150- 
160, September 1980. 

A survey was conducted to assess California consumers' 
knowledge and opinions of factors associated with furni- 



ture flammability. Survey results are summarized and 
show that: most residents were aware that the majority of 
U.S. fire deaths occur in the home; the majority of 
respondents did not know California has an upholstered 
furniture flammability standard; most respondents could 
not evaluate the flame resistance of upholstered furniture 
by examining it; the majority thought there should be 
mandatory standards established by government; and 
flammability was a relatively unimportant issue for 
respondents who planned to purchase upholstered furni- 
ture during the following year. It was also found that 
smoking filtered cigarettes was significantly related to 
concern about furniture flammability. Twelve tables of 
refined data and statistical relationships are included. 

1745 

SOCCER STAR CARDS SCORE POINTS FOR 

FIRE PREVENTION 

Childs, J. 

Fire Engineering 133(12):29-30, December 1980. 

A program, in which the Seattle Fire Department 
spread fire prevention information throughout the city on 
the backs of 100,000 soccer star cards is described. Twenty 
fire safety slogans, a fire department half-time show at 
two soccer games, and complete financing from a local 
newspaper combined to produce an impressive fire pre- 
vention program. Photographs of a typical card and 
slogan and of the half-time show are included, and the 
twenty fire prevention slogans are listed. 

h. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS 

1746 

THE PATTERN OF FIRE RESEARCH IN THE 

UNITED STATES 

Ahiuov, N.; Berman, O.; Parkan, C. 

Fire International 6(68):47-50, September 1980. 

The progress of fire research in the United States has 
been aided by the increased concern over deaths, injuries, 
and property loss caused by unwanted fires. This concern 
led to the creation of two organizational units within the 
U.S. Government: the National Fire Prevention and 
Control Administration, part of the Federal Emergency 
Management Agency; and the Center for Fire Research at 
the National Bureau of Standards. The purpose of these 
organizations is to reduce the losses caused by fire 
through better fire prevention and control. The Fire 
Administration is involved in the following activities: 
Technology Development Program, Management Studies, 
Rural Assistance, and Coordination. The Center for Fire 
Research performs and supports research on all aspects of 
fire with the aim of providing scientific and technical 
knowledge applicable to the prevention and control of 
fires. 



10 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



General 



In addition to the government agencies there is a non- 
profit, private, voluntary agency, the National Fire 
Protection Association (NFPA), which is concerned with 
the development and updating of codes and standards, 
and a public education program. NFPA also conducts a 
data collection and analysis effort. There are also many 
other smaller orgnaizations that are concerned with 
losses caused by fire in the United States. 

1747 

SURVEY OF SOVIET SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 
PROJECTS IN THE FIELD OF FIRE SAFETY 
OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES 

Romanenkov, I.G. 

National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of 

Commerce, NBSIR-80-1203, 37 pages, October 1980. 

A translation of a lengthy letter from Dr. I.G. Roman- 
enkov of the Soviet Ministry of Construction to Dr. R.S. 
Levine of the National Bureau of Standards, as part of an 
agreement to cooperate in the field of fire resistance of 
buildings and structures is presented. It includes a survey 
and bibliography of 1977-1979 Soviet publications on Fire 
Safety of Buildings and Structures. Eight categories are 
referenced: material tests, fire spread on surfaces and 
field tests, calculating fire endurance, mathematical 
modeling, fire spread to neighboring structures, automat- 
ic suppression and detection, protective coatings, and life 
safety in fires. In all, 109 publications are referenced. Dr. 
Romanenkov and Dr. Levine are co-chairmen of the U.S.- 
U.S.S.R. Panel on the Fire Resistance of Buildings and 
Structures. 

1748 

CONFERENCE (ANNUAL) ON FIRE RESEARCH, 

FOURTH 

Martinez, I.M.; Cherry, S.M. (eds.) 
National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of 
Commerce, Washington, DC, NBSIR 80-2127-1, 150 
pages, December 1980. 

Availability: NTIS PB 81-158 305 



Internal fire research programs being operated by the 
National Bureau of Standard's Center for Fire Research 
and extramural grants and contracts sponsored by the 
Center are described. The entire range of fire research 
topics is addressed. Eleven internal research programs 
are discussed. For each program, information on the 
involved professional personnel, program objectives, and 
individual project areas is provided. Grants and contracts 
related to the project areas are also listed. Over 35 
individual grants and contracts are described separately. 
For each project description, the performing organization, 
grant number, grant title, principal investigator and 
other professional personnel, and the NBS Scientific 
Officer are identified. A technical abstract is also provid- 
ed. Appendices present the program of activities for the 
fourth conference, and list the participants. 

1749 

FIRE RESEARCH IN FRANCE 

Cluzel, D. 

Face au Risque 1980(163):39-43, May 1980 (French). 

Status of French research funded by governmental 
agencies and geared toward the protection of people is 
discussed. The current studies cover both the initial 
ignition phase and the post-flashover phase of a fire. The 
first phase has been studied on small, medium, and large 
(corner-test) scales. Two large studies are now in progress 
on fire simulation, to analyze factors contributing to 
flashover. The 1980-1983 research program developed 
jointly by private and government organizations consists 
of four phases: 1) total fire modeling; 2) fire behavior of 
materials; 3) toxicology; and 4) complete safety analysis. 
The studies of the second phase consist of experimenta- 
tion, and modeling of laboratory- and real-scale fires. 
Recently, the world's most advanced variable modular 
fire system was built for experimental studies. The real- 
scale tests are noted with new houses or houses in the 
process of demolition. Construction materials and parts 
have been oven-tested. Two technical documents were 
issued for the calculation of fire-proof concrete and steel 
construction parts. 



DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF FIRE 



a. FIRE BUILDUP, PROPAGATION, AND 
SPREAD 



1750 

LASER TOMOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR FLAME 

FRONT MOVEMENT STUDIES 

Boyer, L. 

Combustion and Flame 39(3):321-323, November 



1980. 

A new method to analyze flame-front movement and 
the velocities of fresh and burned gases in a fuel flow is 
described. The method, which will increase the under- 
standing of the mechanism of turbulent premixed flames, 
uses laser tomographic techniques to obtain a plane cross- 
section of a flame and to visualize the shape of the flame 
front. Details on how the method is used are provided and 



11 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Dynamics and Mechanics of Fire 

some experimental findings obtained using the new 
method are discussed. 



propagation was successfully modeled, though further 
model refinements are called for. 



1751 

FLAME PROPAGATION IN A SUBSTANCE RE- 
ACTING AT INITIAL TEMPERATURE 

Zeldovich, Y.B. 

Combustion and Flame 39(3):219-224, November 

1980. 

An approximate method, derived for analyzing flame 
propagation in a substance reacting at initial tempera- 
ture is presented. The method synthesizes calculations of 
uniform flame propagation and a time-dependent propa- 
gation velocity factor. Background equations are provided 
and appropriate calculations for the approximation meth- 
od are given. Specific properties of the derived solutions 
are also discussed. 

1752 

THE DETAILED MODELING OF PREMIXED, 

LAMINAR STEADY-STATE FLAMES. I. OZONE 

Heimerl, J.M.; Coffee, T.P. 

Combustion and Flame 39(3):301-315, November 

1980. 

Using the ozone flame as a test case, a one-dimensional 
model of a pre-mixed, laminar, steady-state flame is 
developed. The model can be used to predict individual 
species and temperature profiles as well as burning 
velocities. Data on chemical reaction kinetics, thermody- 
namic coefficients, and transport coefficients serve as 
inputs to the model. Calculations are performed using a 
relaxation technique and a computer-based partial differ- 
ential equation package. Sample calculations are present- 
ed and results are compared with experimental data to 
test the model. The comparison shows that the model is 
reasonably accurate. 

1753 

FLAME PROPAGATION THROUGH AN AIR- 
FUEL SPRAY MIXTURE WITH TRANSIENT 
DROPLET VAPORIZATION 

Seth, B.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Sirignano, W.A. 
Combustion and Flame 39(2): 149-168, October 1980. 

A numerical model is presented for the combustion of a 
single-component, polydisperse fuel spray in a cylindrical, 
one-dimensional closed combustor under laminar flow 
conditions. In the model, gas-phase flow is considered 
unsteady. Governing equations take into account: fuel 
droplet size, density, and temperature; reaction kinetics; 
boundary layer parameters; and other appropriate con- 
siderations. Quasilinearization techniques are used to 
solve the governing equations. Results for two common 
fuels were obtained, indicating that flame initiation and 



1754 

FLAME-LIMITING DEVICE FOR A GAS LIGHT- 
ER 

Vallefa, J.J. 

U.S. Patent No. 1235,589, U.S. CI. 431/344, 431/130, 
431/143 (Int. CI. F23D 13/04), Appl. February 27, 
1979, Disci. November 25, 1980, Assignee: The 
Gillette Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 

A flame-limiting device capable of providing a uniform, 
stable flame in liquified gas lighters is reviewed. The 
device employs a noncompressible permeable plug insert- 
ed into the gas flow conduit. The plug is constructed from 
ceramic or sintered metal, so as to have a non-uniform 
permeability gradient, and is so oriented that the perme- 
ability increases in the downstream flow. Background 
information is given and details on the device's construc- 
tion and operation are provided. 

1755 

FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION 

Hodgkin, A.F. 

U.S. Patent No. 1239479, U.S. CI. 431/170, 122/4D 
(Int. CI. F23D 19/00), Appl. July 24, 1978, Disci. 
December 16, 1980, Assignee: Babcock and Wilcox 
Limited, London, England. 

Information on a fluidized bed combustion device that 
retains uniform performance when tilted, as would occur 
aboard a seagoing ship, is presented. Fluidized bed 
combustors burn materials in a fluid-like bed of refracto- 
ry materials. Should the combustor be tilted, the depth of 
the bed would vary, thus affecting the performance of the 
device. The invention would counteract the effect of 
varying bed depth due to tilting by increasing the flow of 
air to the deeper areas of the bed and restricting air flow 
to the shallow areas. This is accomplished by air flow 
valves activated by the tilting movement. The mechanical 
components are graphically presented and their opera- 
tion is explained. 

b. FLAMMABILITY, IGNITION, AND EXTINCTION 

1756 

ON-SITE GASOHOL BLENDING BREEDS 

WIDESPREAD EXTINGUISHING PROBLEMS 

Bowen, J.E. 

Fire Engineering 133(10):32, 39, 40, October 1980. 

Gasohol, a relatively new fuel, is defined as to content, 
and the fire hazards of the alcohol which is added to 
unleaded gasoline to produce the fuel are discussed. 
Because gasohol absorbs water readily, causing phase 
separation, it will have to be blended locally, dictating 



12 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Dynamics and Mechanics of Fire 



local storage of alcohol, which will create problems for 
fire companies. Two types of polar solvent liquid (PSL) 
foams which can be used to control alcohol, ketone, or 
ether fires, where conventional protein. AFFF or fluoro- 
protein forms are not effective, are described and applica- 
tion methods outlined. The amount of foam required, the 
handling of gasohol spills, and the identification of the 
composition of the product involved, are also covered. 

1757 

STUDIES OF CELLULAR FLAMES IN HYDRO- 
GEN-OXYGEN-NITROGEN MIXTURES 

Mitani, T.; Williams, F.A. ■ 

Combustion and Flame 39(2):169-190, October 1980. 

A study is described in which cellular flames in 
hydrogen-oxygen-nitrogen mixtures were investigated to 
determine the nitrogen dilution required for flame sup- 
pression as a function of hydrogen-oxygen ratio. Flame 
temperatures, flame speeds, temperature gradients be- 
hind the flame, unburnt hydrogen, and cell sizes were 
also studied. The downward propagation of the flames 
was evaluated in pyrex tubes at atmospheric pressure and 
initial temperature of 295°K, using thermocouples, gas 
chromatography, and photographic techniques. The ex- 
tinction curve and other findings are presented in graphic 
form. Theoretical and experimental data were compared, 
showing good agreement. 

1758 

WATER EMULSIFIERS AND ADJUVANTS 

Chaillot, H. 

Face au Risque 1979(156):46-51, October 1979 

(French). 

The mechanism of fire extinction by water, with or 
without additives, are discussed in the cases of fire 
involving solid cellulosic materials, flammable liquids or 
liquid fuels, and liquified gases. In the case of the solid 
materials fire, diffused water and water with surface- 
active (wetting) agent additive contribute to the efficiency 
of fire extinction. Surface-active agents, such as AFFF, 
flouroprotein, or "anti-alcohol" emulsifiers, have been 
successfully used in fire control of nonmiscible and 
miscible, e.g., alcohol, liquids of density less than 1 and 
flash point lower than water temperature (generally 
25°C). In the case of a liquefied gas (e.g., hydrogen, 
hydrocarbons), fire can be extinguished by a powder with 
abundant foam produced by a synthetic emulsifier. Other 
fire preventive additives are fire inhibitors (ammonium 
salts), and thickeners for forest fire prevention, and 
chargeless reducers (macromolecules). Water state and 
additives must be selected according to the nature of the 
combustible materials and the type of fire. 



1759 

FREE CONVECTION OVER A BURNING 

SPHERE 

Potter, J.M.; Riley, N. 

Combustion and Flame 39(l):83-96, September 1980. 

The burning of a spherical fuel surface in the presence 
of a gravitational field in an environment in which the 
only fluid motion is that induced by the buoyancy forces 
that act in regions of nonuniform temperature in the 
combustion zone is considered. The boundary-layer equa- 
tions are integrated, using numerical techniques, and the 
flame-sheet model proposed by Burke and Schumann is 
adopted. Appropriate mathematical formulations are 
shown and the analytical solutions provided. Derived 
temperature and velocity profiles are graphically present- 
ed. Additionally, an experiment to test the theoretical 
work was devised using a commercial paraffin-impregnat- 
ed plastic firelighter as the fuel. The experiment mea- 
sured the location of the flame sheet in relation to the 
solid surface and the rate of surface mass transfer from 
the sphere. The agreement between the theoretical pre- 
dictions and the experimental data appears to be encour- 
aging. However, a better agreement in the case of the 
flame-sheet position than for the mass transfer rate was 
noted. 

1760 

SELECTION AND USE OF FOAMS TO MEET 

CHALLENGES OF FLAMMABLE LIQUID 

FIRES 

Brown, G.A. 

Fire Engineering 133(12):34-37, December 1980. 

Fires involving flammable liquids (FL), which require 
the cooling of the fuel to below its ignition temperature, 
and suppression of vapors that can ignite, are discussed. 
The two main types of FL fires are identified as hydrocar- 
bon fuels, such as gasoline, which are the most common, 
and polar solvents, such as alcohols and ethers. A foam 
blanket is the method of choice in fighting such fires, with 
the polar solvents requiring special formulations, since 
they tend to attack and dissolve conventional types. 
Liquid fuels (such as gasohol) which combine hydrocar- 
bon and polar types, are presenting a new problem to the 
fire service, with tank trucks and railroad cars transport- 
ing the fuel the greatest risk. Polar solvent liquid foams 
(PSL) are being developed for use with hydrocarbon fuels 
containing polar solvents. The effectiveness of the various 
types of foams used is considered, and problems of 
application, the effects of heat, and equipment needed, 
are described. The rate of application, and the mainte- 
nance of the foam blanket seal, vital especially in fires 
involving unleaded gasoline and gasohol, are stressed. 
Training and practice in foam use is considered necessary 
for its effective application. 



13 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Dynamics and Mechanics of Fire 

c. FLOW OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS 

1761 

ION FORMATION IN THE FLAME IONIZATION 

DETECTOR 

Nicholson, A.J.C.; Swingler, D.L. 

Combustion and Flame 39(l):43-52, September 1980. 

The testing of the theory of Bolton and McWilliam, 
describing the transport of charge in the flame ionization 
detector used in gas chromatography is described. Using 
mass-spectrometric methods, the spatial distribution of 
positive ions in the flame ionization detector was studied. 
With the exception of the region well upstream from the 
flame front, the ions formed are the same for hydrocarbon 
fuels, alcohol fuels and ketones. A mechanism for the 
formation of ions is proposed which leads to the experi- 
mentally observed flame ionization detector relationships 
connecting ionization with additive structure and concen- 
tration. The experimental work done in this study is 
reviewed and results are presented graphically. 

1762 

THE FIRE-BALL SPECTRUM OF A CON- 
DENSED EXPLOSIVE 

Mallory, H.D. 

Combustion Science and Technology 24(3/4): 161-163, 

December 1980. 

Light emission from the reaction zone of condensed 
explosives is discussed. The fire-ball spectrum of a liquid 
explosive has been shown to partially resemble the 
spectrum of the inner cone of a premixed hydrocarbon-air 
flame. In the experiment described, an explosive nitro- 
methane solution was contained in a glass tube, suspend- 
ed horizontally above the firing pad, and detonated at the 
tube's end. The ensuing fire-ball was recorded and 
measured by a low dispersion, quartz optics spectrograph. 
The derived spectrograms were enlarged and read, using 
a comparator, by dotting the center of the lines. The 
resulting fire-ball spectrum is graphically represented 
and spectographic data from both the fire-ball and a 
propane-air flame are presented in tabular form. 

1763 

CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTION AERO- 
SOLS 

Moliere, M.; Pourprix, M.; Roux, G. 

Fire International 1980(69):73-80, December 1980. 



A study of aerosols, 
teristic used for the 
ionization detectors, 
oped for measuring 
aerosols produced by 
during a simulation 
carried out on a 60 m 



which are the primary fire charac- 
detection of fires by optical and 
is described. A method was devel- 
the granulometric distribution of 
15 different combustible materials 
involving 50 successive real fires 
scale room. Optical detectors were 



found to give a better response than ionization detectors 
in the presence of aerosols produced by smoldering fires. 
Ionization detectors were found to be more sensitive to 
aerosols produced by an open flaming fire in an experi- 
mental environment. With the existence of an envelope 
curve having been established, the production of a 
standard aerosol generator is envisioned. This generator 
would make it possible to produce an apparatus able to 
emit a useful signal by which to assess the performances 
of ionization and optical detectors. A study of the possible 
applications of each detection method will then be possi- 
ble. 

d. INSTRUMENTATION, METHODOLOGY, AND 
DATA PROCESSING 

1764 

UL'S SOLID FUEL BURNING APPLIANCE TEST 

TOWER 

Anon. 

Lab Data 11(1):12-13, Winter 1980. 

A new test facility for evaluating the performance of 
solid fuel burning appliances is described. The 6-level, 66 
foot high, multi-test tower is designed for the evaluation 
of all types of solid fuel appliances including fireplaces, 
fireplace stoves, wood-burning stoves, mobile home heat- 
ers, chimneys, roof vents, heat exchangers and other 
similar devices and their peripheral equipment. The test 
facility contains a digital data aquisition system, a 
microprocessing system, and a closed-circuit television 
system. The facility makes it possible to test more 
appliances in less time. 

e. METEOROLOGY 

[No entries] 

f. RADIATION 



1765 

THERMAL RADIATION OF SPHERICAL AND 

CYLINDRICAL SOOT PARTICLES 

Lee, S.C.; Tien, C.L. 

Energy and Environment Division, Lawrence 
Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, 19 
pages, October 1980. 

The effect of soot shape on soot radiation from flame 
and smoke is discussed. Soot particles can form into many 
different shapes which can be represented by spheres or 
long chains. By considering the long chains as infinite 
cylinders, the radiation extinction characteristics of the 
spherical and cylindrical soot are shown to be distinctly 
different. The spherical particles were found to exhibit a 
cut-off wavelength phenomenon. The emitted radiation 
(emissivity) of a cloud of cylindrical particles is higher 



14 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



than that of the spheres due to their higher extinction 
coefficients. The effect of soot shape on radiation was also 
found to be more pronounced in the range of smoke 
temperatures than at flame temperatures. A simple 
experimental method is proposed for determining the 



Dynamics and Mechanics of Fire 

amount of cylindrical and spherical particles in a cloud of 
soot. 

g. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY 

[No entries] 



BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

[For literature on fire and flame retardants, fire and flame proofing, etc. see Chemical Abstracts.] 



a. CHARACTERISTICS AND THERMAL 
BEHAVIOR OF MATERIALS 

1766 

HEAT RADIATION ASPECTS OF LIQUID FUEL 

FIRES 

Anon. 

Fire International 1980(69):60-66, December 1980. 

The basic forms of heat transfer from a liquid fuel fire 
are radiation and convection. The tests reported were 
conducted to study and measure the radiation in an area 
surrounding a burning basin as well as the effect on an 
above-ground steel tank of heat radiation from that basin. 
The energy calculations were made by measuring the 
incoming energy per unit of time. By measuring the 
radiation at ground level, the complicating effects of 
ground reflection were avoided. After determining the 
actual energy radiation at different distances from the 
flame front (basin edge), only the maximum radiation 
levels compatible with personnel safety and the safe- 
guarding of the tank, building, and equipment need to be 
known to set safe distance limits. The test results were 
generally in agreement with other American tests and in 
previous Italian testing programs. The results should not 
be used blindly in application to real-life problems, since 
only a limited number of fuels were studied and the fires 
were allowed to burn for only a limited period of time. 
Heat transfer by convection should also be studied to 
obtain a better understanding of liquid fuel fires. 

1767 

THE COMPOSITION AND APPLICATION OF 

HEAT RESISTANT PAINTS. PART III 

Smith, C.A. 

Fire Protection 43(518): 19, 22, September 1980. 

The applications of heat resistant paints, the pigments 
involved, and the temperatures they can withstand are 
examined. All pigments that decompose, sublime, or 
change color under heat are unsuitable for use in heat 
resistant paints which automatically excludes all organic 
and quite a number of inorganic pigments. The pigments 
that remain for use are briefly described. They are: 



titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, antimony oxide, iron oxides, 
cadmium pigments, ultramarine blue, cobalt blue, chro- 
mium oxide, black (carbon) pigments, aluminum powder, 
stainless steel flakes, and zinc dust. The melting points, 
thermal stability, vaporization tendencies, application 
and uses of paints made from these pigments are dis- 
cussed. 

1768 

FURNITURE TESTING UNCOVERS INFORMA- 
TION 

Hilado, C.J.; Huttlinger, P.A. 

Western Fire Journal 32(ll):23-26, November 1980. 

Full-scale fire studies of furniture, conducted by Union 
Carbide Corporation in 1975, are reviewed in light of 
more recent experience. Temperature, time, flashover, 
and a few gas product measurements were taken. Find- 
ings showed that: combustible loading was not the con- 
trolling factor; polyurethane foam upholstered furniture 
was not excessively prone to producing high fire intensi- 
ties; furniture configuration and plastic content were 
significantly related to flashover; and the highest toxic 
gas concentrations were caused by fiberboard/plastic 
composites and plastic simulation of carved wood. In 
short, fire intensity, flashover propensity and toxicity in 
developing fires may be more strongly influenced by 
plastic simulations of carved wood and by fiber- 
board/plastic composites than by polyurethane foam 
upholstered furniture. 

1769 

INTUMESCENT COATINGS AND THEIR USES 

Rhys, J. A. 

Fire and Materials 4(3):154-156, September 1980. 

Intumescent coatings, which are used for the protection 
of materials from flame spread and heat damage because 
they foam and bubble when exposed to high heat, are 
discussed. Four ingredients are required to produce the 
coatings; a catalyst, the carbonific, blowing agents, and a 
binder. Intumescent coatings can be used for the protec- 
tion of glass-reinforced plastics and other plastics such as 
those used in trucks and railroad cars. The coatings may 



15 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Behavior and Properties of Materials 

also be applied to the surfaces of structural steel members 
to prevent heat damage and building collapse. The cost of 
mastic coatings is presently very expensive and consider- 
able research is needed to produce a competitive intumes- 
cent system. Developmental work has also begun on the 
use of intumescent coatings and strips to seal doors and 
wall piercings from smoke and toxic gas movement. 

1770 

COMBUSTION AND AGGLOMERATION OF 
COAL-OIL MIXTURES IN FURNACE ENVIRON- 
MENTS 

Miyasaka, K; Law, C.K. 

Combustion Science and Technology 24(l/2):71-82, 

October 1980. 

The burning characteristics of free-falling and sus- 
pended single-sized droplets of a coal-oil mixture in 
heated air were investigated. Quenched samples were 
studied using a scanning electron microscope. The volatil- 
ity of the oil, the concentration and size of the coal 
particles, the residence time, intensity of blowing, and 
effects of water and surfactant addition were some of the 
parameters that were varied in the study. The findings 
substantiate the formation of coal particle agglomerates 
when the volatile oil components have been depleted, and 
emphasize the importance of the oil volatility and the 
convective motion on the coal-oil mixture combustion. 
When No. 6 oil is used, agglomeration is not expected to 
be a serious problem. A mixture of powderized coal and 
oil is under consideration for use as a fuel for stationary 
combustors such as furnaces and boilers. The mixture is 
desirable because it enables direct substitution of oil by 
coal as an energy source. Photographs of droplets of 
different formations taken during testing are included. 

1771 

EFFECT OF BOUNDARY THERMAL CON- 
STRAINT ON PLANAR PREMIXED- 
FLAME/WALL INTERACTION 

Bush, W.B.; Fendell, F.E.; Fink, S.F. 

Combustion Science and Technology 24(l/2):53-70, 

October 1980. 

The effect of the boundary thermal constraint and of 
the Lewis-Semenov number on the propagation of flame 
in the vicinity of a noncatalytic solid planar wall parallel 
to the flame is examined. A constant temperature wall 
constraint, for a series of temperatures ranging from the 
cold temperature of the unburnsd premixture to the bulk- 
burned-gas temperature, and also a changing tempera- 
ture constraint were considered. The occurrence of large 
wall temperatures or large wall heat transfer and the 
persistence of residual unburned fuel are of interest to 
current and proposed internal-combustion automotive 
engine design. When the thermal diffusivity was larger 
than the mass diffusivity, it was found that the largest 



gas-phase temperatures were achieved at intermediate 
wall temperatures. Inferences are drawn concerning 
trade-offs in design requirements for ceramic-type, low- 
heat-transfer cylinder components. 

1772 

RESPONSE OF POLYURETHANE FOAMS TO 

CIGARETTE IGNITION TESTS 

Eicher, W.J.; Szabat, J.F. 

Journal of Consumer Product Flammability 7:172- 

188, September 1980. 

Findings are presented of research conducted by Mobay 
Chemical Corporation during the development of flexible 
polyurethane foams for upholstered furniture. California 
and Upholstered Furniture Action Council furniture 
mock-up tests were performed to evaluate the foam's 
resistance to cigarette-induced smoldering combustion. 
Details on these test methods are provided. Results show 
that when properly formulated the polyurethane foams 
have inherent smolder resistance, assuming the heat flux 
imposed on them is not too great. It was also found that 
additives can impart additional resistance to cigarette 
and open flame ignition. However, flexible polyurethane 
foams are organic materials and will burn when exposed 
to intense heat sources. 

1773 

OXYGEN BALANCE IN STARCH SMOLDERING 

Heine, M.; Orzeszko, A. 

Journal of Fire and Flammability 12:249-253, Octo- 
ber 1980. 

An investigation into the process of smoldering in 
sorghum flour and soluble starch is described. Samples 
were pyrolysized and analyzed. Techniques used in the 
study include differential thermal analysis, thermogravi- 
metric analysis, elementary analysis, and gas chromatog- 
raphy. The oxygen balance for smoldering of both sub- 
stances is given and experimental data are presented in 
tabular form. Results indicate that smoldering occurs 
when the pyrolysis process is well underway. Reduced 
products flux facilitates oxygen access into the reaction 
zone. Overall, it was concluded that up to the beginning of 
smoldering, the oxidation reaction plays a minor role in 
processes accompanying heating. 



1774 

FIRE PERFORMANCE STUDIES ON POLYETH- 

ERIMIDE 

Floryan, D.E.; Nelson, G.L. 

Journal of Fire and Flammability 12:284-301, Octo- 
ber 1980. 

Fire performance studies on polyetherimide, a newly 
developed engineering plastic, are discussed. The materi- 
al is an amorphous thermoplastic having a high heat 



16 






FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



distortion temperature, high mechanical strength, and 
good electrical properties. Tests used to determine its fire 
performance characteristics included ignitability, flame 
spread, oxygen index, smoke production, and toxic gas 
generation tests. Both laboratory and large-scale tests 
were performed. Details on the tests are provided. Test 
results indicate that flame retardancy characteristics are 
excellent. The material is difficult to ignite, flame spread 
index is low, and oxygen index is high. Additionally, 
smoke production is low and carbon monoxide is the 
principal toxicant produced. 



Behavior and Properties of Materials 

at adiabatically compressed voids is not the cause of 
initiation of a shocked explosive. 

1777 

PREMIXED TURBULENT COMBUSTION CON- 
TROLLED BY COMPLEX CHEMICAL KINET- 
ICS 

Champion, M. 

Combustion Science and Technology 24(l/2):23-24, 

October 1980. 



1775 

DECREASE IN TENSILE STRENGTH AND IN 

MASS OF BURNING WOOD 

Pering, G.A.; Springer, G.S. 

Fire Technology 16(4):245-251, November 1980. 

Redwood samples were subjected to burning and subse- 
quent changes in ultimate tensile strength and mass 
(weight) were measured. A correlation was then devel- 
oped between the ultimate tensile strength and mass loss. 
Mass loss due to burning was also calculated, using a 
simple model, and results compared to the experimental 
data. Relevant calculations are presented. During the 
tests, the redwood experienced a rapid loss of strength 
and actual mass loss correlated reasonably well with 
calculated mass loss. 

b. COMBUSTION, EXPLOSION, AND 
FLAMMABILITY TESTS AND METHODS 

1776 

SURFACE IGNITION OF EXPLOSIVES AND 

PROPELLANTS BY A HOT, STAGNANT GAS 

POCKET 

Andersen, W.H.; Gillespie, F.L. 

Combustion Science and Technology 24(l/2):35-42, 

October 1980. 

The ignition of explosives by a hot, stagnant gas pocket, 
such as may be produced by impact or shock in a porous 
material, is examined theoretically. Factors that control 
the surface heating and ignition over a wide range of 
conditions are discussed. At low pressures the heat flux 
and ignition characteristics are controlled by the proper- 
ties of the gas. The ignition energies computed for several 
explosives at a 3 milli-second ignition time are generally 
in agreement with values reported in the literature. 
Under high pressure (or shock) conditions the size of the 
gas pocket and the material thermal conductivity also 
effect the ignition characteristics, and the effect of the hot 
spot size is dominant. Relatively large gas pockets are 
shown to be incapable of igniting the material in micro- 
second time periods. The results provide a semi-quantita- 
tive explanation of the observation that gaseous heating 



A model for the combustion of a turbulent homoge- 
neous mixture of propane and air within a duct having a 
stationary one-dimensional mean flow is presented. Un- 
der the conditions of the study, chemical kinetic factors 
are important and a relatively detailed chemical model is 
needed. A semi-global model for the burning of hydrocar- 
bon is used with simplifying assumptions made to reduce 
the system of independent variables to that of tempera- 
ture and carbon dioxide mass fraction. A two-dimensional 
probability density function is introduced. Solutions to 
the equations for averaged temperature, C0 2 mass frac- 
tion, turbulence kinetic energy, and the mean square 
fluctuation of the temperature, were obtained by numeri- 
cal methods. Predictions of the profiles of mean quantities 
through the combustion zone under different initial 
temperature, turbulence intensities, and dissipation 
length scales are made. 

1778 

FLAME PROPAGATION IN TUBES: HYDRODY- 
NAMICS AND STABILITY 

Zel'dovich, Y.B.; Istratov, A.G.; Kidin, N.I., et al. 
Combustion Science and Technology 24(1/2): 1-13, 
October 1980. 

The propagation of flames in channels is considered, 
taking into account the existence of a stagnation zone 
fixed with respect to the flame front. The boundary 
surface of the stagnation zone is considered as a disconti- 
nuity of the tangential component of velocity; the flame 
front a hydrodynamic discontinuity with the known 
normal rate of propagation through the cold gas. In this 
hydrodynamic model, the gas viscosity, thermal conduc- 
tivity, and diffusivity of the reacting components and 
heat losses at walls are neglected. A comparison is made 
of the results of an analytical approximation and numeri- 
cal solution of the equation that was deduced under the 
simplified flow-field description. An analysis showed that 
a critical Reynolds number corresponding to the appear- 
ance of the flame instability can attain values over a few 
hundred, and agreed with the experimental observations. 



17 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Behavior and Properties of Materials 

1779 

COMBUSTION OF POLYURETHANE FOAM IN 
A TUNNEL VENTILATED AT AN AIR SPEED OF 
5 METERS PER SECOND 

Wilde, D.G. 

Journal of Fire and Flammability 12:263-274, Octo- 
ber 1980. 

Experiments which examine the rate of development 
and burning of fires involving polyurethane foam and 
wood are described. Measurements were taken under full- 
scale testing, simulating conditions found in real-world 
underground mining operations. Trials were carried out, 
using both polyurethane foam and wood, in a ventilated 
200-meter-long tunnel instrumented to measure evolved 
gases, temperature, flame speeds, and general visual 
information. Test data show that the experimental fires 
progressed very rapidly and flame speeds up to 2.3 meters 
per second were measured. High concentrations of oxides 
of carbon with little oxygen, temperatures up to 1300°C, 
and heavy smoke production were also measured. 

1780 

FLAMMABILITY TESTING IN EUROPE 

Walker, A.G. 

Fire and Materials 4(3):149-153, September 1980. 

Current fire test programs in Europe regarding com- 
bustibility, ignitability, flame spread, heat release, 
smoke, and toxicity are outlined. The need for fire testing 
and the problems involved in simulating actual fire 
conditions are discussed. For test purposes, a fire is 
divided into four distinct stages: initiation, growth, full 
development, and decline. The first three fire stages must 
be considered in the fire testing of materials. The 
International Standards Organization (ISO) has pub- 
lished ISO R 1182 as a method for determining the non- 
combustibility of materials and many countries have 
published similar standards, as well as tests for flame 
spread, ignitability, heat release, and smoke release. 
Toxicity tests, however, have not been fully developed in 
Europe for release as a practical standard. 

1781 

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND COMBUS- 

TION/PYROLYSIS PROPERTIES OF POLY- 
MERIC MATERIALS 

Tewarson, A. 

National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of 
Commerce, Washington, D.C., NBS-GCR-80-295, 83 
pages, December 1980. 

Data on the physico-chemical and combus- 
tion/pyrolysis properties of aromatic, nonaromatic granu- 
lar, and foamed polymeric materials is presented. The 
findings can be used in fire modeling, fire risk evalu- 
ations, and basic understanding of fire. Factory Mutual 



small-scale combustibility equipment was used to obtain 
data on stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio, temperature pa- 
rameters, combustion efficiency, product yields, smoke 
generation, flame parameters, and numerous other com- 
bustion properties. Experimental data is presented in 20 
tables and supplemental data on selected parameters are 
summarized in appendices. In addition, the dependency of 
various fire properties such as heat release rate, product 
generation rates, and light obscuration, and fire detec- 
tion, were analyzed in terms of the fire environment and 
the properties of the materials. 

1782 

FIRE STUDIES OF FURNITURE: REVIEW OF 

EARLIER WORK 

Hilado, C.J.; Huttlinger, P.A. 

Journal of Consumer Product Flammability 7:161- 

171, September 1980. 

Results on fire studies on furniture, published in 1975, 
are evaluated in light of more recent experience. Accord- 
ing to the evaluation, the probability of room flashover 
may be more influenced by ceiling materials, wall cover- 
ings, and drapery fabrics than by individual pieces of 
furniture. Furthermore, in a developing fire, fire intensi- 
ty, flashover propensity, and toxicity may be more 
influenced by plastic simulations of carved wood and by 
fiberboard/plastic composites (which are now used fre- 
quently to replace real wood) than by polyurethane foam 
upholstery. 

1783 

POLYMER DEGRADATION DURING COMBUS- 
TION. QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT NO. 3 

Brauman, S.K.; Chen, I.J. 

Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA, 6 

pages, October 6, 1980. 

Work performed from July 1 to October 1, 1980 on a 
study to evaluate polymer degradation during combustion 
is reported. The work entailed measurement of combus- 
tion temperature profiles, refinement of radiant pyrolysis 
procedures, and exploration of characterization tech- 
niques for the radiant pyrolysis residues. The combustion 
temperature profiles were obtained during the burning in 
air of polystyrene rods. The resulting temperature gradi- 
ent is graphically presented. Refinements to the radiant 
pyrolysis techniques were aimed at reducing incident 
radiation and maintaining laminar gas flow to adequately 
reflect combustion in air. Residue slicing techniques 
using microtomes to reduce sample loss were also exp- 
lored. 



18 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1784 

FIRE HAZARDS AND THE COMPARTMENT 
FIRE GROWTH PROCESS — OUTLINE OF A 
SWEDISH JOINT RESEARCH PROGRAM 

Pettersson. O. 

Fou-Brand 1980(l):l-9, 1980. 

A research effort, titled "Fire Hazards — Fire Growth 
in Compartments in the Early Stage of Development 
(Pre-flashover)," a joint project of the Swedish National 
Testing Institute and the Lund Institute of Technology, 
financed by the Swedish Fire Research Board, is de- 
scribed. The general background, scope, organization and 
detailed structure of the project is presented. Specific 
information on each of the eleven research items into 
which the study was divided, as well as the progress made 
up to August 1980, is the main content of the report. The 
final goal of the project is the development and validation 
of test methods for surface lining materials, as well as 
furniture and other fittings, which would have the 
capability of predicting the behavior and contribution of 
the tested material or product on natural fire growth and 
spread in a compartment. The 3-year project will con- 
tinue through December 1981. 

1785 

BEHAVIOR OF FOLDING CHAIRS AFIRE 

Wooley, W.D.; Raftery, M.M.; Ames, S.A., et al. 
Face au Risque 1980(166):38, 40, October 1980 
(French). 

Flammability and combustion characteristics of mold- 
ed plastic seats on a metal frame were determined in a 
series of tests conducted by the British Building Research 
Establishment. Some of the tested seats, made of different 
plastic (polymer) materials, or beech plywood, were 
fireproofed. Flammability of a single seat was deter- 
mined, using ignition sources of increasing thermal 
energy (a candle, alcohol, or wood fagots). Combustion 
characteristics were observed in the tests of a single chair 
or a pile of chairs ignited with wood fagots. It is concluded 
that the risk of fire in a pile of chairs can be reduced by 
appropriate selection of the seat materials or its fireproof- 
ing. A pile of chairs may present a very high fire risk with 
smoke and toxic gas emission (e.g., polypropylene, poly- 
phenylene oxide). Combustion characteristics, such as 
fusion, or formation of liquid drops and puddles of 
burning liquid, of a single chair afire indicate a probable 
risk of violent fire in a pile of identical chairs. Particular- 
ly high risk is present with chairs made of materials 
emitting much smoke and toxic gases. 



Behavior and Properties of Materials 

C. FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS OF 
MATERIALS 

1786 

EFFECT OF FIRE RETARDANTS ON CARBON 

MONOXIDE PRODUCTION 

Hilado, C.J.; Huttlinger, P.A. 

Journal of Fire Retardant Chemistry 7:183-188, 

November 1980. 

A study to determine the effect of fire retardants on 
carbon monoxide production is reviewed. Selected materi- 
als were treated with fire retardants (Sandoflam or boric 
acid solutions) and tested for carbon monoxide production 
through a toxicity screening test. It was determined that 
the yield of carbon monoxide tended to decrease with 
increasing fire retardant level in most cases. Minimum 
carbon monoxide yields were observed at some additive 
levels. 



FLAMMABILITY, 
EXTINGUISHING, 



1787 

COMBUSTIBLE METALS: 

HAZARDS, MEANS OF 

STORAGE 

Hubner, H. 

Revue Technique de Feu 18(189):56-59, Au- 
gust/September 1979 (French). 

The most important combustible metals are listed, and 
their flammability, hazards from explosion and detona- 
tion, spontaneous ignition and ignition from extraneous 
sources are reviewed briefly. Effective and auxiliary 
substances to be used for extinguishing a metal fire and 
their mode of application are given. Safe storage of 
combustible metals (building and warehouse arrange- 
ment, storage compartments, containers) is described, 
using magnesium as an example. Particular precautions 
to be taken in handling combustible metals are recom- 
mended, such as wearing nonflammable clothing, shoes 
without nails, and eliminating any source of sparks or 
static charge. 

1788 

THE EARLY FIRE HAZARD PROPERTIES OF 

TIMBERS 

Moulen, A.W.; Grubits, S.J. 

Technical Study No. 50 Department of Housing and 
Construction, Experimental Building Station, Aus- 
tralia, 14 pages, 1980. 

Tests on nearly 40 timber samples (both uncoated and 
lacquered with polyurethane) which were combusted in 
corner-burn tests to determine the early fire hazards 
associated with their use, are described. The corner-burn 
tests were conducted in accordance with Australian 
Standard 1530, Part 3. Data on mean ignition time, flame 
spread index, heat evolved, and smoke produced were 



19 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Behavior and Properties of Materials 

isured and correlated with timher sample density. The 
correlation revealed that a relat ionship exists between all 
the combustion parameters (except smoke production), 
and timber density. Specifically, time to ignition in- 
creases with density while flame spread and evolved heat 
decrease. A few exceptions are noted, and the lack of a 
relationship between timber density and smoke genera- 
tion is indicated. Tests of samples coated with polyure- 
thane lacquer show that flames will spread more rapidly 
in the less dense, coated woods. 

178!) 

SPREAD OF FLAME ACROSS FILTERS FOR 

AIR-CONDITIONERS 

Moulen A.W.; Grubits, S.J. 

Technical Record 456 Department of Housing and 
Construction, Experimental Building Station, Aus- 
tralia, 19 pages, June 1980. 

A variety of air-conditioner filters were tested (in both 
clean and dust-laden conditions) for flame spread charac- 
teristics to determine their possible contribution to a 
developing fire. Nine filters constructed of either glass 
fiber, acrylic, or polyester, were subjected to the "Test to 
Grade Horizontal Flame Spread" developed by the per- 
forming organization. Each filter is illustrated. During 
the test, measurements were taken on both the level of 
impressed heat, needed to maintain flame spread, and 
radiant heat flux. Details on the test equipment and 
methodology are provided and derived experimental data 
are graphically presented. It was concluded that flame 
spread did not differ significantly between clean or dust- 
laden filters. Additionally, the glass fiber filters did not 
display any flame spread properties, while filters of the 
other materials may contribute to the development of 
fires due to their significant flame spread characteristics. 

1790 

SMOKE PRODUCED BY BURNING AIR-CONDI- 
TIONING FILTERS 

Moulen, A.W.; Grubits, S.J. 

Technical Record 457 Department of Housing and 
Construction, Experimental Building Station, Aus- 
tralia, 4 pages, June 1980. 

A study to determine the amount of smoke produced by 
burning air-conditioner filters is described. The testing, 
done in accordance with the Test for Early Fire Hazard 
Properties of Australian Standard 1530 Part 3, involved 
the combustion of nine types of filters constructed with 
acrylic, polyester, or glass fiber filtering materials. Each 
of the filter types is illustrated. In addition to smoke 
production, ignitability, flame spread, and heat evolved 
were also determined. It was found that glass fiber filters 
produce the least smoke while acrylic filters produce the 
most and have, in addition, the worst flame spread 
performance. 



1791 

THIS IS HOW A BLEVE OCCURS 

Anon. 

Brandforsvar 17(5):13-14, May 1980 (Swedish). 

A BLEVE is defined as two phenomena that occur at 
the same time and together result in a violent release of 
energy. In a real BLEVE the container is destroyed and 
broken into pieces at a point when the liquid of the 
container is hotter than its boiling temperature at normal 
atmospheric pressure. Both combustible and non-combus- 
tible liquids can interact in a BLEVE. All combustible 
gases are stored and transported under pressure. The 
reason why the container is destroyed can be both heat 
and mechanical causes. The heat influence is usually 
caused by a fire. Small containers do not have any safety 
valves. Larger containers are protected to some extent by 
safety valves, but they do not prevent the over-heating of 
the container which leads to its destruction. Parts of a 
container that explodes can fly as far as 800 m. A BLEVE 
can be prevented if the pressure within the container can 
be reduced before it breaks, to at least normal atmospher- 
ic pressure. That is difficult to accomplish in transport, 
and really can only be done on containers that are 
isolated, because the isolation increases the time avail- 
able for decompression. 

1792 

FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS WITH 

AEROSOLS 

Anon. 

Fire Prevention 1980(139):22-24, December 1980. 

The fire and explosion hazards associated with the 
manufacture, storage, and use of aerosols and propellants 
in pressurized canisters are reviewed. Flammability char- 
acteristics of aerosol sprays are described and the manu- 
facturing process used in their manufacture is explained. 
As noted, reductions in the use of chloroflourocarbons as 
propellants, due to environmental considerations, will 
cause the substitution of liquified petroleum gas (LPG) 
with its attendant flammability risks. These risks can be 
reduced with spray additives and valve modifications. 
Filling hazards are illustrated by descriptions of two fires 
caused by manufacturing errors and storage hazards are 
discussed in light of recent loss experience. 



20 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



d. NATURE OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS 

1793 

A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PUBLISHED PAPERS 

ON SMOKE AND SMOKE SUPPRESSANTS 

Hilado, C.J.; Huttlinger, P.A. 

Journal of Fire Retardant Chemistry 7:243-245, 

November 1980. 

Bibliographic citations for 31 papers dealing with 
smoke and smoke suppressants are presented. Only 
papers in which the discussions of smoke are related to 
smoke suppression are listed. Thus, the bibliography does 
not include papers that deal only with smoke test 
methods or smoke in full-scale fires. The compilation is 
intended to represent an initial information base on the 
topic. An author index is also provided. 

1794 

GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION 

OF NITROGENOUS SPECIES IN COMBUSTION 

PRODUCTS 

Banna, S.M.; Branch, M.C. 

Combustion Science and Technology 24(1/2): 15-22, 

October 1980. 

The development of a simple and reliable gas chroma- 
tographic technique for the measurement of the concen- 
trations of nitrogenous species in combustion products is 
the subject of this study. Separations of the combustion 
products were accomplished on a two column combina- 
tion of Porapak T and molecular sieve 5A. The columns 
were chosen based on an exhaustive literature search and 
tests on possible packing combinations. Three constant 
temperature conditions were used for the separations, 28, 
50, and 150°C. Lower detection limits of 100 parts per 
million were achieved for all of the species. Combustion 
product gas mixtures were supplied by probe sampling in 
a flat flame burner. The reliability of the nitric oxide 
concentration measurements was demonstrated by NO 
yields comparable to previous investigations in addition 
to nitrogen balances on lean NH 3 /CH 4 /0 2 /Ar flames. 

1795 

TOXIC HAZARDS IN FIRE 

Loader, K. 

Fire Prevention 1980(138):28-30, October 1980. 

This digest of standards and test methods (being 
developed in the UK and internationally) for the mea- 
surement of toxic fire gas hazards includes descriptions of 
two committee projects and various other undertakings. 
A British Standards Institution committee (FSB1-2) was 
formed in 1977, and a summary of their report on 
requirements for a toxicity test is given. The deliberations 
of an International Standards Organization (TC92WG12) 
and synopsis of West German, Belgium, United States, 



Behavior and Properties of Materials 

Japanese, French and Danish test methods and standards 
are presented in conjunction with highlights of Fire 
Research Station and United Kingdom fire toxicity re- 
search. 

1796 

SMOKE FROM THERMAL INSULATION MATE- 
RIALS 

Hilado, C.J.; Murphey, R.M.; Huttlinger, P.A. 
Fire Technology 16(4):273-286, November 1980. 

The smoke-producing characteristics of a wide variety 
of materials are discussed, with special attention given to 
thermal insulation. The different methods currently used 
to measure smoke density are described, including the 
Arapahoe Smoke Test, the National Bureau of Standards- 
Aminco Smoke Chamber test, various ASTM smoke tests, 
and the Ohio State University Release Rate Test. These 
tests involve either gravimetric or optical measurement 
techniques. Selected data on the various materials de- 
rived from these tests are presented, and test results on 
rigid polyurethane foam are compared. Through testing, 
it was concluded that some thermal insulating material 
can be formulated to provide increased thermal insula- 
tion and reduced smoke generation. 

e. PROTECTION AND MODIFICATION OF 
MATERIALS 

1797 

CHAR FORMATION IN POLYVINYL CHLO- 
RIDE. 2. INFLUENCE OF THE CHARRING 
AGENT ZINC PYROMELLITATE ON THE 
THERMAL DEGRADATION OF PVC DURING 
RADIANT PYROLYSIS 
Brauman, S.K. 

Fire Retardant Chemistry 7:175-182, November 
1980. 

This second in a series of studies examining the 
reduction in flammability and smoke production of PVC 
plastic through treatment with char promoters is dis- 
cussed. Rigid PVC, with and without treatment with zinc 
pyromellitate, was pyrolysized under combustion-like 
radiant heating conditions. Pyrolysis residues were then 
analyzed across the reaction gradient to characterize the 
reactions important to charring. The analysis indicates 
that the additive promotes dehydrochlorination and mo- 
lecular crosslinking, but not fragmentation of the PVC. In 
addition, with the char promoter present, polyenes and 
insoluable material are found further down into the char 
bulk. 



21 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Behavior and Properties of Materials 

L798 

(MAR OF BURNED COTTON FIBERS TREATED 

WITH FLAME RETARDANTS 

Zeronian, S.H.; Alger, K.W. 

Journal of Fire Retardant Chemistry 7:189-205, 

November 1980. 

A study to establish whether there is a correlation 
between the type of flame-retardant treatment applied to 
cotton and the type of char produced on subsequent 
burning of the product is discussed. Various cotton fabrics 
and fibers were treated with four flame retardants, or 
phosphorylated or chlorinated. Samples were then com- 
busted and analyzed under a scanning electron micro- 
scope and by thermogravimetric techniques. Representa- 
tive scanning electron micrographs are shown. It was 
determined that char morphology does not appear to be 
influenced by the type of phosphorous flame retardant 
nor its method of application. 

1799 

SURFACE AND BULK PROPERTIES OF 
FLAME-RETARDANT COTTON FABRICS. PART 
III. EFFECT OF LAUNDERING 

Soignet, DM.; Hinojosa, O.; Benerito, R.R. 

Journal of Fire Retardant Chemistry 7:210-227, 

November 1980. 

The effect of laundering on cotton fabrics that have 
been treated with flame retardants was examined. Treat- 
ed cotton fabrics were laundered in the presence and 
absence of hypochlorite bleach. Analyses of differences in 
surface and bulk properties after washing was followed by 
induced electron emission spectography. The effects of 
bleach on the treated fabrics were determined through 
analysis of electron spin resonance signals and by 
changes in oxygen concentrations produced by laundering 
reactions. Chemoluminescence techniques were also used 
to study the adverse effects of light, in the ultraviolet to 
visible range, on treated fabrics. Results from using the 
various analytical techniques show that oxidative 
changes in the surface of the treated fabrics occur, 
particularly during outdoor weathering and washing with 
chlorine bleach. Other findings are also summarized. 

1800 

WEATHERING OF EXPERIMENTAL PHOS- 
PHORUS-NITROGEN FIRE RETARDANTS ON 
OUTDOOR COTTON FABRICS 

Yeadon, D.A.; Harper, R.J., Jr. 

Journal of Fire Retardant Chemistry 7:228-242, 

November 1980. 

The performance of several phosphonium-based fire 
retardants used experimentally to treat outdoor cotton 
fabrics was evaluated. Comparisons with commercially 
available treated and untreated fabrics were also made. 



Fabrics with varying finishes were subjected to outdoor 
weathering for a period of one year and were periodically 
tested for fire resistance, water-repellancy, breaking 
strength, tearing strength, and chemical content. The 
derived data are presented in tabular form. After 12 
months of outdoor weathering, all experimentally-treated 
fabrics showed good fire resistance. Other findings are 
also discussed. 

1801 

REDUCING THE FIRE HAZARDS IN MODERN 

AIRCRAFT CABINS 

Horsfall, J. 

Fire 73(905):299-300, November 1980. 

Information on the fire hazards of modern aircraft 
cabins is presented and new developments which may 
reduce these hazards are described. A fire in an aircraft 
cabin presents three main threats to life: production of 
smoke and high temperatures, depletion of oxygen, and 
production of toxic gases. Each of these conditions, which 
are primarily the result of burning plastics, are discussed 
briefly. The formulation of new, highly fire-resistant 
materials, such as polyimide foam and Dunloppillo foam, 
are noted as promising developments in the construction 
of safer aircraft cabins. The need for revision of outmoded 
fire protection regulations is also discussed. 

1802 

DEVELOPMENT OF FLAME AND SMOKE RE- 
TARDANT THERMOPLASTIC MOLDING COM- 
POUNDS 

Mueller, W.A.; Ingham, J.D.; Reilly, W.W. 
Journal of Fire and Flammability 12:275-283, Octo- 
ber 1980. 

Tests, in which various compositions of polypropylene 
and ethylene-acrylic acid resins (filled with high levels of 
alumina trihydrate or magnesium hydroxide) were evalu- 
ated for smoke generation and impact resistance, are 
described. A smoke density chamber and a pendulum 
device were used to obtain the experimental data. Details 
on the variojis test material formulations are given. It 
was found that ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer resin, 
with a high alumina trihydrate content, had low smoke 
production and good impact resistance. The addition of 
polyvinyl alcohol fibers to the filled resin improved 
impact resistance, but caused an increase in smoke 
generation. 



22 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Behavior and Properties of Materials 



1803 

FR BACKCOATING STUDIED 

Anon. 

Furniture Design and Manufacturing 52(8): 14, 16, 

August 1980. 

A new flame-retardant backcoating technology for 
treating upholstery fabrics is described. The treatment 
involves backcoating upholstery fabrics with Fyrol 51, a 
proprietary chemical compound previously used in auto- 
motive air filters. Fabrics backcoated with the compound 
exhibit flame retardant and smolder resistant qualities 
and can be treated using present coating equipment. 
Results from laboratory cigarette burn tests on treated 
and untreated upholstered chairs are presented. It was 
found that cigarettes failed to ignite treated chairs whi'e 
untreated chairs ignited and burned a little over an hour 
after the cigarette ignition source was applied. Results 
from the five tests conducted are summarized in tabular 
form. 

f. STABILITY OF MATERIALS AT ELEVATED 
TEMPERATURES 



to measure the minimum temperatures necessary for the 
initiation of smolder in cellulosic insulation materials. 
Details on the method are provided. It was found that the 
thickness of the layer affects the minimum temperature 
significantly. Layers from 3 to 30 cm thick display a 
minimum temperature of smolder, ranging from 220°C to 
320°C. The addition of chemicals to the insulation has 
been shown to have very little effect. Boric acid, elemen- 
tal sulphur, and a commercial retardent blend were 
tested as additives. Of these, boric acid proved to be the 
most effective but only raised the ignition temperature by 
20°C. A method of predicting the ignition temperatures 
was developed which demonstrated that the first overall 
stage of oxidation is responsible for a material's ignition 
characteristics. 

It was also demonstrated that solid reactant consump- 
tion, neglected in the model, can distort the ignition data. 
The effects of oxygen consumption are noted as minimal. 
The boric acid additive doubles the minimum thickness 
for continued propagation. The effects of additives on the 
propagation of smolder are determined by their influence 
on both overall stages of insulation oxidation. 



1804 

CELLULOSIC INSULATION MATERIAL. II. EF- 
FECT OF ADDITIVES ON SOME SMOLDER 
CHARACTERISTICS 

Ohlemiller, T.J.; Rogers, F.E. 

Combustion Science and Technology 24(3/4): 139-152, 

December 1980. 

The Bowes and Townshend method of using one-dimen- 
sional heat flow through a layer on a hot surface was used 



FIRE MODELING AND TESTING 



a. FIELD EVALUATION 

1805 

A STUDY OF THE DETERMINISTIC PROPER- 
TIES OF UNBOUNDED FIRE PLUMES 

Cox, G.; Chitty, R. 

Combustion and Flame 39(2):191-209, October 1980. 

A study of fire plumes, using time correlation tech- 
niques to determine mean velocity, temperature, mean 
mass, momentum, heat flux, and air entrainment of 
plumes produced by a gas burner, is discussed. Thermo- 
couples and electrostatic sensors were used to obtain the 
experimental data. It was found that the plume appears 
to be divided vertically into three distinct regions: flame 
core, intermittent flaming region, and the conventional 
thermal plume. The second region comprises 60 percent of 



the plume height, where velocity is constant with height. 
Mean velocity and temperature are approximately relat- 
ed throughout the whole plume. Other findings are 
discussed. 

b. FIRE BEHAVIOR 

1806 

FLAME LENGTHS UNDER CEILINGS 

Babrauskas, V. 

Fire and Materials 4(3):119-126, September 1980. 

Details of a method for predicting the length of flames 
from burning objects as they impinge on a ceiling are 
presented. The measurement of flame length is important 
for use in predicting the behavior of a fire and for 
modeling certain configurations of fires. As an object in a 



23 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Modeling and Testing 



room is ignited and burns, the vertical flame reaches to 
the ceiling and then mushrooms outward. The radiant 
heat from the flames along the ceiling may be sufficient 
to cause other objects to become involved in the fire. In 
this study, four geometries for flame spread were consid- 
ered: 1) an unbounded ceiling, 2) a plume near a corner, 3) 
a plume in a corner, and 4) a one-directional corridor 
spread. In the calculations it was assumed that the total 
air entrained up to the flame tip was the same for ceiling 
flow as for the free fire. A comparison of the calculations 
with limited experimental data suggests a potential for 
prediction in full-scale room fires. 

1807 

AN EVALUATION OF HEAT RELEASE CRITE- 
RIA IN REACTION-TO-FIRE TESTS 

Vandevelde, P. 

Fire and Materials 4(3):157-162, September 1980. 

A quantitative evaluation of the heat evolved during a 
reaction-to-fire test has been developed utilizing a theo- 
retical approach as opposed to the empirical "area under 
the curve" method. Two heat balance equations, one for 
the walls and another for the air in the test space, are 
used. After comparing the theoretical approach and the 
empirical method in 34 tests on electrical cables, it was 
determined that the empirical method is unacceptable. 
The development of a transfer function from the two heat 
balance equation is presented. The theoretical basis for 
the study is the temperature difference between the air 
inlet and the gas outlet caused by the heat released from 
the burning specimen. The theoretically-based evaluative 
method is also suitable for computerized data processing. 

1808 

ON THE PREDICTION OF THERMAL DIFFU- 
SION EFFECTS IN LAMINAR ONE-DIMEN- 
SIONAL FLAMES 

Greenberg, J.B. 

Combustion Science and Technology 24(l/2):83-88, 

October 1980. 

A new technique for predicting the Soret and Dufour 
flux effects in laminar one-dimensional premixed gaseous 
flames is presented. These effects have generally been 
neglected in studying laminar flame phenomena. The 
technique utilizes a transformation of the time-dependent 
flame equations into a form which can be readily solved 
using methods in the literature for the classical-type 
flame problem in which the additional transport fluxes 
are neglected. The results computed from the trans- 
formed equations underscore the role that thermal diffu- 
sion can play in predicting the characteristics of hydro- 
gen-air flames. The study of laminar flames is important 
because many household appliances are powered by 
laminar flames from gas. Also, knowledge from the study 
of laminar flames can be used to determine the complicat- 



ed chemical kinetics that are encompassed in any com- 
bustion system. 

1809 

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS SPILLS ON WA- 
TER: FIRE MODELING 

Schneider, A.L. 

Journal of Fire and Flammabilitw 12:302-313, Octo- 
ber 1980. 

Fire tests and modeling that have been aimed at 
developing a better understanding of the combustion 
processes of liquified natural gases (LNG) in pool fires on 
water, and vapor cloud fires, are described and evaluated. 
LNG fire tests that have been performed in the past are 
briefly reviewed and six predictive fire models are dis- 
' cussed. Three of these models relate to LNG pool fires, 
while the remaining three address vapor cloud fires. 
Assumptions, critical calculations, and results for each 
model are given and correlated with data derived from 
the fire tests. It was concluded that LNG pool fires are 
now adequately modeled, but that vapor cloud fire models 
require refinements based on further large-scale experi- 
mentation. 

1810 

HEAT RELEASE RATE IN FIRES 

Tewarson, A. 

Fire and Materials 4(4):185-191, December 1980. 

Heat release rate is defined in terms of heat of 
combustion and mass loss rate of the fuel. Heat release 
rate is an indicator of the rate of fire growth, the size of 
the fire, human escape potential, fire suppression agents, 
and application rates for fire control. Heat release rate is 
dependent on fire conditions rather than on the fuel. Fire 
stages, oxygen to fuel ratio, heat flux received by the fuel 
chemical composition of the fuel vapor and products, are 
all dependent on the heat of combustion components and 
mass loss rate. Heat of combustion is the ratio of heat 
release rate to mass loss rate of the fuel. The mass loss 
rate depends on the degree of heat flux the fuel receives 
and the heat required to generate a unit mass of fuel 
vapors. Heat release rates were measured using Factory 
Mutual Combustibility Apparatus. Heat release rate data 
can be used to determine the relative fire hazard of fuels, 
for various fire conditions, for estimating human escape 
potential from fires, and for operating fire-sensing mech- 
anisms. 



24 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Modeling and Testing 



1811 

MANAGING THE VARIABILITY OF FIRE BE- 
HAVIOR 

Berlin, G.N. 

Fire Technology 16(4):287-302, November 1980. 

A model is presented which can systematically account 
for fire behavior variability due to complex interactions 
in room sizes, fuels, flammability of involved materials, 
environmental conditions and other factors that can 
affect a fire. Called the "Building Firesafety Model," it 
describes the temporal and spatial characteristics of fire 
development and allows fire safety assessments under 
differing situations. The model breaks down a fire's 
development into various states or "realms" and incorpo- 
rates actual fire test data using standard statistical 
techniques. Details on use of the model are provided, 
including sample calculations. The model is useful for 
evaluating the fire safety ramifications of using new 
structural materials, techniques, and designs. 

1812 

WHAT REALLY DOES HAPPEN TO ELECTRI- 
CALLY EXCITED ATOMS IN FLAMES? 

Smyth, K.C.; Schenck, P.K.; Mallard, W.G. 
Laser Probes For Combustion Chemistry ACS Sym- 
posium Series, No. 134, 7 pages, 1980. 

A study to evaluate the electrical behavior of electroni- 
cally excited atoms in combusted sodium is described. 
Aqueous sodium was aspirated into a hydrogen flame and 
electronically excited using laser devices. Opto-galvanic 
spectroscopy was then used to measure electrical current 
changes as a function of the ionization and quenching 
processes initiated due to excitation. Results were com- 
pared to model calculations. The model employed ac- 
counted for absorption, stimulated emission, collisional 
ionization, and quenching parameters. It was found that 
opto-galvanic signal magnitudes appeared to be a func- 
tion of excitation energy. Experimental data did appear 
to correlate well with model data, though necessary 
additional refinements to the model are suggested. 

1813 

FLAME ACCELERATION DUE TO TURBU- 
LENCE PRODUCED BY OBSTACLES 

Moen, I.O.; Donato, M.; Knystautas, R., et al. 
Combustion and Flame 39(l):21-32, September 1980. 

The combustion rate at which a combustible gas 
mixture is consumed, and therefore the rate of heat 
release, is characterized by the burning velocity of the 
mixture. An investigation of the influence of obstacles on 
the propagation of freely expanding cylindrical flames is 
described. The flame speed was found to depend critically 
on the obstacle configuration. By placing appropriate 
turbulence-producing obstacles in the flame path, flame 



speeds up to 130m/sec in stoichiometric methane-air 
mixtures were readily achieved. This is approximately 24 
times the flame speed observed with no obstacles. The 
influence of obstacles was interpreted in terms of the 
turbulence and flow field distortions the obstacles pro- 
duced. It was determined also that the flame was unable 
to maintain its large turbulent flame speed without 
repeated obstacles to provide flow field distortions and 
continuous turbulence. 

1814 

MODEL OF IMPACT IGNITION AND EXPLANA- 
TION OF CRITICAL SHOCK INITIATION ENER- 
GY. I. RUDIMENTS 

Andersen, W.H. 

Combustion Science and Technology 24(3/4):153-159, 

December 1980. 

The critical shock initiation energy relationship of 
Walker and Wasley, which has been shown to correspond 
to the Hugoniot energy delivered during the shock 
ignition of a material, is discussed. Walker and Wasley 
have shown that the shock initiation to detonation of an 
explosive charge appears to require that a certain citicial 
(minimum) energy per unit area be delivered to the 
explosive charge. This relationship defines the functional 
form of the ignition delay time under valid conditions. An 
outline of a new shock ignition model is postulated. The 
new model suggests the ignition delay time is controlled 
by the time it takes the hot reaction products, in small 
hot spots that are initiated near the shock front, to heat 
and ignite the adjacent solid material, so as to set up a 
spreading grain-burning reaction in the material. If the 
initiating hot spot becomes too large, the initiation event 
becomes essentially homogeneous in nature. Critical 
assumptions of the model are noted, the theoretical basis 
is reviewed, and relevant mathematical analyses are 
shown. 

1815 

USING FIRE REPORTS TO ESTIMATE FIRE 
SPREAD FOR FOCUS SIMULATION MODEL- 
ING 

Bunton, D.R. 

Fire Management Notes 41(2):5-9, Spring 1980. 

FOCUS, a computerized simulation model which allows 
a fire planner to determine the effects of different 
suppression plans on a given outdoor fire incident is 
described. It can simulate the growth and spread of a fire 
and show how different fire tactics will affect the suppres- 
sion effort. Analysts can use data from actual fire reports 
to update and correct the simulation model and to test it 
for accuracy. FOCUS is based on a "growing ellipse" fire 
growth model, with the fire shape and forward rate of 
spread used as defining parameters. Estimates of the size 
of the fire and its shape can be made by an experienced 



25 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Modeling and Testing 



fire manager from the fire reports. The estimates are 
then checked by looking at the number of people used to 
control the fire, the time it took for control, the fuel type, 
the free burn time, and the final size of the fire. The 
estimates can then be used to add to the versatility of the 
FOCUS simulation model. 

C. FIRE TESTING OF COMPONENTS AND 
STRUCTURES 

1816 

EXAMINATION OF ELECTRICAL CONDUC- 
TORS FOLLOWING A FIRE 

Beland, B. 

Fire Technology 16(4):252-258, November 1980. 

Electrical arcing of electrical cables under fire condi- 
tions is examined, with particular emphasis on whether it 
is possible to determine if arcing was the consequence or 
the cause of the fire. It is stated that evidence of melted 
copper conductors in a wire is indicative of electrical 
arcing initiated after the fire began and therefore would 
not have been the fire's cause. Such arcing is difficult to 
maintain under normal conditions and would not be a 
likely fire cause due to low energy content and circuit 
breaker protection. However, once a fire has begun, the 
intense heat can pyrolysize the wire's insulation which in 
turn provides a conductive pathway of combustion prod- 
ucts to support a continuous electrical arc capable of 
melting considerable lengths of wire. Additional research 
on the phenomenon is suggested. 

1817 

THE BURNING OF WOOD AND PLASTIC CRIBS 

IN AN ENCLOSURE: VOLUME II 

Quintiere, J.G.; McCaffery, B.J.; Harkleroad, M. 
National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of 
Commerce, Washington, D.C., NBSIR 80-2054, 591 
pages, November 1980. 

Room fire data referenced in Volume I of this two- 
volume report are summarized in tabular and graphic 
form. The data were obtained during room fire tests 
performed to determine the combustion characteristics of 
burning wood and plastic cribs in an enclosed space. 
Details on the tests and test conclusions are presented in 
Volume I. Included in the Volume II data collection are 
values for room and doorway temperatures, crib mass loss 
and mass loss rates, evolved gas concentrations and 
temperature profiles, combustion product flow rates, and 
room static pressures. A brief discussion of each data set 
is provided, including mathemathetical formulations 
where applicable. Appendices to Volume II contain infor- 
mation on time-averaged values, raw data scores, and 
average peak values. 



1818 

FIRES AND FLASHOVER IN ROOMS — A SIM- 
PLIFIED THEORY 

Thomas, P.H. 

Fire Safety Journal 3:67-76, 1980/81. 

A mathematical model describing the energy balance 
in a quasi-steady compartment fire is presented. The 
model accounts for thermal feedback, essentially repre- 
senting the radiation from hot gases and walls, as well as 
mass transfer in a partially mixed but uniform atmo- 
sphere. Several fire regimes are identifiable with the 
model by revealing various relationships between burn- 
ing rate and ventilation rate. One regime, representing 
one kind of flashover condition, is of particular interest. 
Basic assumptions of the model are stated, relevant 
equations and calculations are shown, and critical rela- 
tionships in the model are illustrated in graphic form. 

d. FIRE TESTING OF MATERIALS 

1819 

MODELING FOR DETERMINATION OF TEM- 
PERATURES OF ELECTRICAL CABLES WITH- 
IN THERMALLY INSULATED WALLS 

Evans, D.D. 

Center for Fire Research, National Bureau of 
Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce, Wash- 
ington, D.C., NBSIR-80-2129, 23 pages, October 

1980. 

Availability: NTIS PB 81-113 847 

Various models, developed to predict the temperature 
increase caused by resistive heating of a current-carrying 
electric cable within an insulated wall, are described. 
Special emphasis has been given to simplified models 
which minimize computation time. The predictions are 
compared to measurements performed on a cable in- 
stalled in a laboratory wall-space mock-up. The results of 
the two-dimensional model are within 15 percent of the 
measured temperatures. The heat-absorbing effect of the 
wood studs within the wall on the temperature rise of the 
section of cable passing through the wood is demonstrated 
by the experiment and the model calculations. 

1820 

THE EARLY FIRE BEHAVIOR OF COMBUSTI- 
BLE WALL LINING MATERIALS 

Moulen, A.W.; Grubits, S.J.; Martin, K.G., et al. 
Fire and Materials 4(4): 165-172, December 1980. 

The Australian Standard AS1530 Part 3 "Test for Early 
Fire Hazard Properties of Materials," which has been 
applied to assess a wide range of wall lining materials, is 
discussed. The test was originally developed to evaluate 
the fire behavior of cellulosic wall linings in simulated 
room fires. This series of tests used the same parameters 



26 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Modeling and Testing 



for ignitability, flame spread, heat evolved, and smoke 
developed as the cellulosic lining tests. Additionally, the 
behavior of the linings in the standard test were com- 
pared to the behavior in corner-wall burns. Two types of 
ignition were used for the testing; timber cribs, and 
impressed radiant heat with a pilot flame. The test was 
found to be a valid multiparameter test that simulta- 
neously determines independent indices of ignitability, 
flame spread, heat evolved, and smoke developed. A 
general agreement was discovered in the ranking of the 
early fire behavior of a series of lining materials between 
parameters measured in the corner-wall burns and the 
corresponding parameters in the standard tests, with a 
few specific exceptions. The test was validated for the 
wider range of wall lining materials. 

1821 

EUROPEAN STANDARDS FOR FIRE TESTING 

Thomas, P.H. 

Fire Engineers Journal 40(119):35-40, September 

1980. 

The standardization of fire tests in Europe by the 
International Standards Organization (ISO) is discussed. 
The ISO Technical Committee 92 report, "Fire Tests for 
Building Materials," is the main area discussed for 
accomplishing the fire test standardization. "Reaction to 
fire" tests are designed to assess the hazards that arise 
from the growth of fire. Therefore, they are concerned 
with ignition, flame spread, smoke production, flamma- 
bility, and toxicity. The current reaction is to fire tests in 
use including the ignitability test, the spread of flame 
test, the rate of heat release test, smoke production tests, 
and toxicity and toxic hazard tests. These tests are 
discussed and illustrations of the test apparatus used is 
provided. The tests are used to establish performance 
criteria for building materials The fire tests should serve 
as tools for various purposes, since they measure quanti- 
ties which the engineer needs for design, and the re- 
searcher needs for modeling. It is concluded that in the 
area of fire testing, the European community is lagging 
behind the United States and Japan. 

1822 

SMOKE PROBLEMS IN BUILDINGS ON FIRE: A 

TNO RESEARCH PROJECT 

Van Dijk, H.A.L.; Twilt, L.; Zorgman, H. 

Fire and Materials 4(4): 192-200, December 1980. 

Smoke production and smoke movement in buildings 
on fire are reviewed in light of a TNO research project. 
The emphasis on the prevention or limitation of excessive 
heat development is in great contrast to the global 
approach to problems connected with smoke. The meth- 
ods used to determine smoke production of materials on 
fire are somewhat vague. Smoke is an essential consider- 
ation in fire prevention, especially since a high percent- 
age of deaths are due to smoke. An experimental model 



for smoke production and a theoretical one for smoke 
movement were developed. An evaluation of the data 
from these models was to be used to draw conclusions and 
make recommendations which could be used in practice. 
The research project was discontinued before such an 
evaluation could be conducted. However, the develop- 
ment of the models and test apparatus was completed and 
is presented in this report. 

1823 

RELIABLE SMALL-SCALE FIRE-TESTING AP- 
PARATUS 

Tewarson, A. 

Modern Plastics 57(11):58, 60, 62, November 1980. 

Material indices from fire tests using a small-scale 
Factory Mutual test apparatus are defined and data from 
a test example, and their significance in the study of 
plastics and other materials, are discussed. Obtainable 
test data include ignition and surface flame spread 
parameters, mass-loss rates, heat release rates, combus- 
tion product generation rates, light obscuration values, 
and fire extinguishment characteristics. The methods for 
obtaining these indices using the apparatus are described 
and sample test data are presented in tabular form. 
Information on how to interpret the data is also given. 

1824 

FIRE PERFORMANCE OF CELLULAR PLAS- 
TIC INSULATIONS IN CONSTRUCTION 

Gluck, D.G.; Hagan, J.R.; Hipchen, D.E. 
Fire Journal 74(6):76-73, 89, November 1980. 

The test methods used to measure the flammability 
characteristics of foamed plastic insulation, with empha- 
sis on several recently developed large-scale test methods, 
are reviewed. Selected foam plastic products, competitive 
insulation products and other materials used in building 
construction were fire tested in a comprehensive program 
and the results are discussed. Twenty-six full-scale build- 
ing fire tests and large-scale flammability tests were 
utilized in the program. The tests provided significant 
information on the validity of certain test methods, the 
relative fire performance of various construction materi- 
als, and the effects of their arrangement in actual 
buildings. Problems related to the regulation of the fire 
performance of these materials are noted. 

1825 

FIRE TESTING AND FIRE SAFETY 

Day, T. 

Fire Surveyor 9(5):35-41, October 1980. 

The role of fire testing in fire safety is discussed with 
regard to the problem of relating test performances of 
materials to their performance under actual fire condi- 
tions. The relationship between this concept and govern- 
ment performance regulations is also addressed. As is 



27 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Modeling and Testing 



noted, the materia] properties most related to fire safety 
are: combustibility; ignitability, flammability, (lame 
spread, heat release, smoke production, and toxic gas 
production. British fire tests relative to these properties 
are listed. While such tests are considered essential to fire 
safety, certain problems persist. For example, how repre- 
sentative is the material tested to the production materi- 
al, how reliable is the test equipment used, and how 
realistic is the test method to real fire conditions. These 
and other problems that may affect the reliability and 
applicability of the tests are discussed individually. 

1826 

RISING VS. FIXED PYROLYSIS TEMPERA- 
TURE IN EVALUATING TOXICITY 

Hilado, C.J.; Huttlinger, P.A. 

Modern Plastics 57(9):89, 94, September 1980. 

The relative merits of two toxicity screening methods, 
namely pyrolysis using a fixed temperature, and a rising 
temperature program, are compared. The test methods 
are briefly explained and relative toxicity data, derived 
from the two tests, on various polymer and wood samples 
are summarized. It is concluded that while fixed tempera- 
ture programs yield valuable information, a rising tem- 
perature program is more cost-effective and provides 
more consistent data. 

1827 

A COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR MEASUR- 
ING FABRIC FLAMMABILITY 

Stone, L.; Block, I. 

Textile Chemist and Colonist 12(12):302-305, Decem- 
ber 1980. 

Apparel fabrics were tested for flammability, using 
three different methods, and the results compared. Eight 
fabric samples, consisting of both natural and synthetic 
fibers, were evaluated using rate-of-burn, heat transfer, 
and char length flame tests. Details on the test methods 
are provided. It was found that char-length testing is too 
crude to discriminate the level of flammability of fabrics 
that burn. The rate-of-burn test was stringent with 
regard to flammability ratings toward lightweight fab- 
rics, and lenient toward heavier weight fabrics. Heat 
transfer testing had the opposite tendency, rating light- 
weight fabrics less flammable than heavyweight. To 
overcome these anomalies, a hybrid test incorporating 
both heat transfer and rate-of-burn measurements is 
proposed as being superior to either test alone. 



1828 

THE FIRST FULL-SCALE TKSTS WITH CUR- 
TAINS: THEY ARE MORE DANGEROUS THAN 
WE THOUGHT 

Anon. 

Brandforsvar 17(6/7):24-25, June 1980 (Swedish). 

Results are presented of full-scale tests aimed at 
creating guidelines for the classification of curtains based 
on how easily they are ignited and how fast they burn, as 
well as how much smoke is formed. In the test conducted, 
200 cm long by 100 cm wide curtains (made from cotton, 
acrylic, and polyester/cotton fabrics) were ignited at the 
bottom. The fire reached the curtain rod after 18 to 75 
seconds in the cotton fabric curtains, after 46 to 50 
seconds for the acrylic curtains, and 43 seconds for the 
polyester/cotton curtains. The structures, the surface 
density and the color dyes contributed to the burning 
behavior of the cotton fabric curtains. Burning cotton 
fabric curtains mainly spread the fire to the ceiling. 
Acrylic curtains melted and dripped onto the floor, 
whereby the greatest fire risk was on the floor, the walls 
and furniture. 

e. MODELING AND SCALING 

1829 

MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF FIRES 

Levine, R.S. 

National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of 

Commerce, NBSIR-80-2107, 44 pages, September 

1980. 

Availability: NTIS PB 81-110 520 

The necessity for and the development of mathematical 
fire models is presented. Fire growth in a compartment is 
discussed showing the need for full-scale tests or mathe- 
matical models adequately simulating this growth. The 
involvement of several Federal agencies and their grant- 
ees in bringing about the necessary engineering and 
mathematical capability to accomplish this modeling is 
described. Problems that can be solved relatively simply 
by using parts of the modeling capability now available 
are detailed. Some of these problems may be of interest to 
fire protection engineers and authorities. The final sec- 
tion is a discussion with the audience to which this paper 
was presented, to determine their modeling needs. The 
audience decided that both a series of simple models, each 
applicable to a limited range of problems, and a major 
comprehensive model, accessible from a computer termi- 
nal, which could solve a very wide range of problems, 
were needed. Figures and tables are included. 



28 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1830 

SCALE MODELING OF INERT PRESSURANT 

DISTRIBUTION 

Corlett, R.C; Stone. J.P.; Williams, F.W. 

Fire Technology 16(4):259-272, November 1980. 

Distribution of pressurized inert gas. typically nitro- 
gen, throughout a pressurizable enclosure has been 
proposed as a possible fire suppression system. Safe 
operation of such a system requires a uniform distribu- 
tion of the pressurant. Experiments investigating pressu- 
rant distribution in scale models are described. The tests 
were performed using a 5 cubic meter facility (at the 
Naval Research Laboratory); and a one-sixth scale model 
(at the University of Washington). Two different methods 
to measure pressurant distribution were employed, the 
direct method and the thermal method. Details on the 
experimental arrangements are provided and relevant 
modeling calculations are given. It was found that the 
scale modeling techniques are valid, and that of the 
methods used to measure pressurant distribution, the 
thermal method is less expensive but somewhat less 
accurate than the direct method. 

1831 

IMPLICATIONS OF THE LAMINAR FLAMELET 
MODEL IN PREMIXED TURBULENT COMBUS- 
TION 

Libby, P.A.; Bray, K.N.C. 

Combustion and Flame 39(1):33-41, September 1980. 

New physical insight into the processes occurring in a 
premixed turbulent flame and new models for use in their 
analysis, developed as a result of describing a flame in 
terms of an ensemble of laminar flamelets, are discussed. 
Extension of the Bray-Moss model for premixed combus- 
tion, particularly, leads to new models for turbulent 
transport. The physicochemical connection between the 



Fire Modeling and Testing 

chemical source term and the dissipation of product 
fluctuations is also developed and used to construct a new 
model. New models for other dissipation effects can also 
be constructed using similar considerations. It is conclud- 
ed that consistent application of the laminar flamelet 
model questions the applicability to turbulent flames of 
some of the ideas developed for constant density, nonreac- 
tive turbulence. Mathematical equations for the research 
are included. 

1832 

COMBUSTION OF PARTICLES IN A LARGE 

PULVERIZED BROWN COAL FLAME 

Juniper, L.A.; Wall, T.F. 

Combustion and Flame 39(1):69-81, September 1980. 

An ignition model of a polydisperse cloud of brown coal 
particles, in a known gas environment, is presented. The 
model is used to predict the behavior of the particles in a 
burner jet of a utility boiler. It allows for drying, 
devolatilization. and char combustion of the particles. 
The volatiles are assumed to burn in the free stream 
allowing char combustions to occur during volatile evolu- 
tion with the diffusion of oxygen to the particle surface 
being inhibited due to the net outflow of volatiles. 
Volatile release rates and char combustion rates are 
calculated and shown to be in agreement with measure- 
ments of volatile material in the flame. Particles smaller 
than about 80 microns contribute most to the ignition of 
the jet and they closely follow the local gas temperature. 
An analysis of the relative importance of radiation from 
the flame front to the particle and entrainment of hot 
combustion gases into the jet is made. Radiation is found 
to be of secondary importance compared to the effect of 
entrainment which is the controlling mechanism in the 
initial heating of the particles. The significance of assum- 
ing that the volatiles burn in the free stream is discussed. 



FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 



a. BUILDING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

1833 

REFLECTIONS ON DESIGN OF SMOKE VENTS 

IN MULTISTORY BUILDINGS 

Quenzel, K.-H. 

VFDB 29(2):34-39, May 1980 (German). 

Criteria of smoke and heat dissipation through the 
apertures in external walls of a building are evaluated so 
as to satisfy requirements of preventive fire protection. 
The mass outflow rate or the anticipated volume flow rate 
were calculated, using the expressions for thermal flow, 



pressure drop and the flow contraction factor. The vent 
surface area was formulated as a function of the drag 
coefficient and contraction factor. Apertures of different 
geometries can be evaluated, using a factor which ex- 
presses the most unfavorable flow properties in relation 
to an aperture of standard design. The designs of the most 
common apertures in external walls or windows are 
tabulated together with the corresponding flow factors 
(drag coefficient and contraction factor) and the evalu- 
ation factor. 



29 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Protection of Structures 



1834 

IMPACT OF LEGISLATION — 3 

Marchant, E.W. 

Fire Engineers Journal 40(1 20): 15-20, December 

1980. 

Citing the fire safety problems brought about by 
piecemeal legislation relevant to fire safety in buildings, a 
new legislative trend toward self-regulation in the build- 
ing industry in the United Kingdom is discussed. Specific 
problems of past legislation are reviewed (jurisdictional 
disputes, inflexibile response to new materials and tech- 
niques, difficult legal language, etc.), and the primary 
objectives, benefits and possible problems of self-regula- 
tion are summarized. Under a self-regulation system, 
designers, engineers, and appropriate "competent per- 
sons" would share the primary responsibility for structur- 
al and fire safety. In such a system, performance specifi- 
cations, the responsibilities of the competent person, and 
the educational needs of the involved professionals are 
thus critical issues. Each of these issues are discussed. It 
is noted, however, that self-regulation has the potential to 
be cost-effective, to be responsive to changing technology, 
and able to provide adequate building fire safety. 

1835 

NO HIGH GROUND 

Anon. 

Progressive Architecture 1980:88-99, October 1980. 

The many interrelated factors that play a role in 
building fire safety are presented. A number of fire 
incidents are described to illustrate relevant fire safety 
problems, and fire loss statistics are provided. The specific 
topics addressed include historical assessments of fire- 
safe building design, the politics of fire protection, govern- 
mental efforts in fire protection activities, fire research 
into various materials such as plastics, and the use of 
computers in fire research. The role of the fire protection 
engineer is also discussed and various fire protection 
technologies such as sprinkler systems, smoke vents, and 
automatic door closers are reviewed. Particular emphasis 
is placed on the fire safety ramifications of applicable 
safety codes such as the National Fire Protection Associa- 
tion's Life Safety Code. As noted, building fire safety is 
essentially a design problem and knowledge, technology, 
and political wisdom must be applied in a coordinated, 
cooperative manner to overcome the problem. 

1836 

ARCHITECTS AND FIRE PROTECTION 

Zwingmann, R. 

Face au Risque 1980(167):36-40, November 1980 

(French). 

Consideration of fire protection requirements in plan- 
ning, construction, and maintenance of various buildings 
is discussed in the framework of general safety require- 



ments and in connection with the recently introduced 
courses of fire protection at large West German schools. 
Teaching these courses to architectural students is made 
necessary by conflicting requirements of modern building 
construction evolution and fire protection. This conflict is 
explained using the example of urban school construc- 
tion. The duty of an architect is to reconcile the architec- 
tural requirements with fire protection specifications. 
The one-semester course on fire protection at the Berlin 
Technical University consists of theoretical lectures, 
practical group exercises, and communication between 
groups on the subject matter. The tasks of the German 
schools in the matter of fire protection are legally defined 
as scientific research and instruction, preparation of 
students for professional activity, continuous education of 
professional people, collaboration with foreign schools, 
and public information. 

1837 

ALUMINUM ROOFING — POOR PROTECTION 
AND DANGEROUS FOR FIREMAN. ARE LIGHT 
ROOFS GOOD OR BAD IN A FIRE? 

Lennmalm, B. 

Brandforsvar 17(3):26-27, March 1980 (Swedish). 

The advantages and disadvantages of lighweight roof- 
ing systems, with regard to fire safety, are explored. It is 
noted that the modern method of building with light- 
weight construction materials does not provide the same 
fire protection as heavy-duty construction. To plan for a 
reasonable level of protection it is necessary to evaluate 
fires and potential fire damage to light construction 
buildings. Walls that are built to divide buildings so that 
possible fires would not spread (compartmentation) 
should meet standard requirements instead of being 
dependent on the expertise of the builders. Tests have 
also been conducted to investigate the possibility of using 
the low melting point of aluminum plate for openings in 
the roof that would not require smoke shutters. Melting 
roofs can, however, be hazardous to the fire crew when 
the visibility is impaired and the aluminum might be 
dripping down. It is suggested that the most economical 
way to accomplish security is the installation of sprin- 
klers. 

1838 

THE ARCHITECT'S VIEW OF FIRE PROTEC- 
TION AS A COMPONENT OF BUILDING EQUIP- 
MENT 

Usemann, K.W. 

VFDB 28(3): 122-127, September 1979 (German). 

A building's equipment is defined as an integral part of 
a residential, special purpose, or industrial building, 
which must be designed simultaneously with the build- 
ing. It includes supply (water, power), power-consuming 
(heating, warm water), disposal (water, garbage) and 
safety installations (lightning and fire protection, securi- 



30 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Protection of Structures 



ty). Enhanced fire protection, particularly in special 
purpose and industrial buildings, is necessary because of 
high value of aggregates and machines installed in these 
buildings. The possible causes of damaging fires are 
discussed, as well as preventive fire-protection measures. 
The substantial role of a building's technical equipment is 
outlined in the propagation of a damaging fire, e.g., 
through ventilation ducts; and in firefighting, e.g., sprin- 
klers. The responsibility of architects for designing fire- 
fighting installations and fire alarm systems is empha- 
sized. The deficient and unrealistic program of formal 
education of West German architects in fire-protection is 
believed to be a factor in the increasing cost of fire 
damage. 

b. DETECTION AND ALARM 



1840 

MICROPROCESSOR FIRE/GAS SYSTEMS FOR 

OFFSHORE PLATFORMS 

Buck. R.J. 

Fire Protection 43(518):18-19, September 1980. 

The capabilities of microcomputer-based fire and gas 
protection systems for offshore platforms are explained. 
The advantages of such a system include: continuous 
dynamic self-testing; triplication of systems; increased 
display information; permanent records of hazard and 
system performance; size reduction; lower costs; and 
reduced down-time. Details are presented of the alarm 
sequence (input modules, scanning, central processor, 
timer, outputs). The system is extremely flexible and the 
visual display units can supply large amounts of real-time 
color-coded data. 



1839 

RESIDENTIAL SMOKE DETECTORS: A CON- 
SUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 
EVALUATION 

Harwood, B. 

The International Fire Chief 46(ll):20-23, Novem- 
ber 1980. 

An evaluation of smoke detector reliability based on 
reports from 12 local fire jurisdictions, dispersed through- 
out the United States, is presented. Each jurisdiction was 
asked to submit a complete smoke detector questionnaire 
for every fire-related incident in residences in which a 
smoke detector was installed. The 731 reported incidents 
were divided into two categories: 621 incidents related to 
a fire department alarm precipitated by the presence of 
either fire or smoke; and 110 incidents related to an 
alarm precipitated by activation of a detector without the 
presence of fire or smoke. Of the 621 incidents precipitat- 
ed by fire or smoke alarms, 539 involved ionization 
detectors and 82 involved photoelectric detectors. Results 
of an analysis of the data shows that: 25 percent (153) of 
the incidents involved too little smoke to expect activa- 
tion; 84 percent (391) of the remaining incidents involved 
the activation of at least one detector; and in 73 cases, no 
detector activated. The most common cause for failure 
was dead or absent batteries. 

In 26 of these incidents, it was determined that a 
detector malfunction or possible malfunction occurred. 
Incidents involving the activation of an alarm without 
smoke or fire are of two types: alarms indicating a need to 
replace batteries; and alarms involving nuisance tripping. 



1841 

WAKING EFFECTIVENESS OF HOUSEHOLD 

SMOKE AND FIRE DETECTION DEVICES 

Nober, E.H.; Peirce, H.; Well, A., et al. 

National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of 

Commerce, NBS-GCR-80-284, 85 pages, October 

1980. 

Two experiments conducted to determine the effective- 
ness of household smoke and fire detectors in waking the 
occupants of the household are reported. The first experi- 
ment assessed the intensity and frequency characteristics 
of several smoke alarm signals. At a distance of 10 feet, 
the average alarm output was 85 decibels. The octave 
band energy peaks generally occurred at 4000 hertz. The 
second experiment involved 70 college-aged subjects in an 
attempt to quantify the sleep-waking performance rela- 
tive to the alarm signals and environmental background 
noise. The major factor considered was the time taken to 
respond to the alarm signal. Other variables included 
alarm sound level, air-conditioner background noise, 
hours into sleep, night of the week, sex, and VCR/TV. 
Pre- and post-alarm trial questionnaires were also given 
to the students. The project concluded that college-aged 
subjects can be awakened and alerted by smoke detector 
alarm levels as low as 55 dBA even with background 
noise, when sufficiently sensitized to the signal and 
motivated to respond accordingly. 

1842 

MICROCOMPUTERS WILL MONITOR SHOP- 
PING CENTER ALARM SYSTEM 

McCallum, D. 

Fire 73(906):350, 379, December 1980. 

A direct monitoring and alarm system supported by a 
microcomputer-based system, known as the Data Based 
Control System, which serves a new shopping mall in 
Peterborough, England, is described. Through use of the 



31 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Protection of Structures 

microcompter, it is possible to obtain false alarm indica- 
tions, automatic alarm location signalling to the fire 
department via a printer, operation of active fire protec- 
tion features, and dynamic real time visual d 
alarm slate- Discussions of microprocessor chips, alarm 
scanning, programming, alarm sequences, and system 
architecture are included to provide an in-depth explana- 
tion of this system. A simplified operations flow chart of 
the system is also provided. 

1843 

NEW DIMENSION IN PROTECTION 

Capper, R. 

Fire 73(906):360, 870, December 1980. 

An overview of state-of-the-art, technologically ad- 
vanced detection and prevention systems for offshore 
platforms is presented. The FE.2003A, a modular control 
system, is characterized according to its physical, opera- 
tional, and usage features. The advances in gas sensors 
(catalytic and diffusion-controlled pellistors) and sprin- 
kler control valves (butterfly wafer) are discussed in 
detail. The technical and operational aspects of these new 
devices are provided. 

1844 

QUALIFICATION TEST OF SMOKE DETEC- 
TORS 

Laursen, A. 

Fire Technology 16(4):303-313, November 1980. 

A discussion of the various considerations relevant to 
smoke detector qualification tests is presented. Test 
specifications developed by several European and inter- 
national organizations are reviewed and experimental 
test data are summarized in tabular form. Data on both 
environmental and fire tests are provided. These tests 
include reliability, false alarm, operational, fire sensitivi- 
ty, and fire resistance. It is suggested that internationally 
agreed upon test specifications must be developed to 
improve the quality and reliability of fire detection and 
alarm systems on a worldwide basis. 

1845 

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF THE SMOKE DETEC- 
TOR CONCEPT 

Clark, B.A. 

Fire C/»e/-24(9):36-37, 39, September 1980. 

The interrelationships between smoke detector laws, 
engineerng, installation, maintenance, and proper fire 
reactions are considered. Voluntary, mandatory, and free 
installation have been influenced by state laws and 
Federal monies. Multiple changes have occurred in the 
Underwriters Laboratory's and Factory Mutual's Engi- 
neering Standards since their development, and Safety 
Standards and recalls have placed additional controls on 
the detector's design. National Fire Protection Associa- 



i (NFPA) codes prescribe pi oper installation, proper 
maintenance, and adequate training in fire evacuation 
procedures Two incidents are recounted where failures in 
(me of the five important components of smoke detector 
protection have resulted in fire fatalities. 

1846 

REVIEW OF AUTOMATIC FIRE DETECTION 

Anon. 

Face au Risque 1979(156):31-39, October 1979 
(French). 

The most important points from reports presented at 
the 1979 conference sponsored by the French National 
('enter for (Fire) Prevention and Protection are summa- 
rized. Among the topics discussed were the theory of 
detection of the phenomena subsequent to ignition, char- 
acteristics of various fire detector types and switchboards, 
French standards for fire detectors, French regulation of 
automatic fire detection in public establishments (stores, 
hotels, hospitals, clinics, boarding schools), high-rise 
buildings, and covered parking garages. Manual, semi- 
automatic, or fully automatic modes of fire control are 
examined from the standpoint of fire insurance. Problems 
arising from detector installation, e.g., false alarms, and 
the possibility of making stable and reliable detectors 
were reviewed. Different phases of detector maintenance, 
and qualifications and duties of maintenance personnel 
are described. In conclusion, anticipated improvements in 
detector transmission circuits, data acquisition and pro- 
cessing, are cited. 

1847 

DEADLY FIRE UNDERSCORES NEED FOR 

SMOKE DETECTORS 

Pendergrast, R.F. 

Fire Chief 24(12):24-26, December 1980. 

A fire in a home in McLean, Virginia, which claimed 
the lives of 7 of the 8 occupants, is described. The tragedy 
provoked widespread press coverage which mentioned 
that no smoke detector was in use. Local papers, report- 
ing that smoke detector sales jumped, pressed for public 
education on the need for smoke detectors, since Virgin- 
ia's laws call for smoke detectors only in new residences. 
A month after the fire, Fairfax County created a task 
force to change legislation and require smoke detectors in 
all residences, and local Boy Scout troops distributed 
smoke detector brochures throughout the county. Free 
smoke detectors were available for mobile home residents 
if they agreed to a fire safety inspection or participated in 
a 10-day free fire safety program. The tragic fire under- 
scored the need to motivate homeowners to install smoke 
detectors. 



32 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Protection of Structures 



1848 

NO CAUSE FOR ALARM 

Anon. 

Law Enforcement Communications 7(6):22-23, No- 
vember-December 1980. 

The continuing problem of false alarms, which waste 
money and endanger lives, is discussed. Many cities have 
controlled the problem by removing pull boxes, although 
apparently this is not always the answer. Phoenix (Arizo- 
na) has no pull boxes and no false alarms; Miami 
(Florida), with voice-to-voice communicators, also has 
very few false alarms. However, in Los Angelers (Califor- 
nia), where pull boxes were removed several years ago, 
false alarms plunged the next year, but have increased 
each year since. The use of a phone alarm system does 
appear to help reduce the incidence of false alarms, as 
was the case in Washington, D.C. Problems in the 
prosecution of those who turn in false alarms, when they 
can be apprehended, and steps being taken by various 
jurisdictions to combat the problem, are covered. 

1849 

A STEP TOWARD BETTER SAFETY. CENTRAL- 
IZATION OF DETECTORS 

Le Guenec, N. 

Face au Risque 1980(160):33-37, February 1980 

(French). 

The essential functions of a centralized system of fire, 
burglary, break-in, sabotage, or other detectors are dis- 
cussed. The main types of fire detectors are cited. A 
central unit, self-contained or associated with peripheral 
units, is described. Possible technical means of improving 
the reliability of a centralized detector installation in- 
clude: the use of fewer relays; incorporation of telediag- 
nostic devices; emergency power supply; and information 
filtering (elimination of false alarms). The actual and 
future possibilities of long-distance alarm transmission 
are examined. At present in France, an automatic trans- 
mission to a fire department is not yet feasible. Conse- 
quently, alarm signal monitoring is done via a telemoni- 
toring company which maintains 24-hour communication 
with a central unit of an enterprise and public organiza- 
tions. Various communication lines are used. Contracting 
out alarm monitoring to a telemonitoring company re- 
sults in savings of expenses for personnel. A few examples 
of actual centralized detector installations are given. 

1850 

THE PRINCIPLES OF FIRE DETECTION. PART 

2: HEAT DETECTORS 

Burry, P. 

Fire Surveyor 9(6):21-27, December 1980. 

The second part of a series examining the principles of 
fire detection deals with heat detectors, the simplest and 



oldest type of fire detector still in use today. Heat 
detectors use the energy from the fire to mechanically 
open or close an electrical circuit to sound an alarm. The 
sensing element of a heat detector may be a fusible 
element, bimetalic strips, or an expanding gas. Types of 
heat detectors may be divided by: their behavior with 
time, their method of operation, or their method of 
interconnection. There can also be point detectors to 
detect heat in a certain specific area or line detectors 
which may take the form of a wire which would protect 
large areas. Two important items to consider when 
selecting a detector are its time of response, and its 
operating characteristics. Fixed temperature detectors 
are made to operate when the sensing element reaches a 
predetermined temperature. Rate-of-rise detectors de- 
pend on how fast the temperature rises to operate. The 
principles underlying the design, construction, and per- 
formance of heat detectors are covered. Future parts in 
this series will discuss the use and placement of heat 
detectors. 

1851 

FIRE DETECTION BY MICROPROCESSORS 

Maclean, A.D. 

Fire 73(906):348-349, 378-379, December 1980. 

A feasibility study of fire detection using microproces- 
sors, by the British Home Office Scientific Advisory 
Branch, is described and the capabilities and methods of 
operation are detailed. False alarms, due to environment, 
electrial/mechanical failure, or communications faults, 
are leading considerations in the development of this 
concept of fire detection. Overall system structure, with 
digital/analog signals from detectors being analyzed by a 
microprocessor pattern identifier, is analyzed in regard to 
communication links, memory requirements, detectors, 
traffic volume, and feasibility of software updating. 
Detailed information is given on wire requirements, 
dedicated and carrier communication lines, and four 
alternative methods of software downloading. A schemat- 
ic layout of a general plan, applicable to both existing and 
proposed detection systems, is included. 

c. EVACUATION MEANS AND ESCAPE 
SYSTEMS 

[No entries] 



33 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Protection of Structures 



d. EXTINGUISHING AGENTS, ADDITIVES, AND 
EQUIPMENT 

1852 

SIMULTANEOUS APPLICATION OF FOAM 

AND DRY POWDER ON AIRCRAFT FIRES 

Ansart, F. 

Fire International 6(68):35-40, September 1980. 

The combined use of foam and dry powder extinguish- 
ing agents on aircraft fires has not been carefully studied 
to determine its effectiveness. The analysis of actual 
incidents has found that foam is indispensible for extin- 
guishing surface fuel fires, while dry powder is indispensi- 
ble for extinguishing streams of burning fuel. The three- 
dimensional nature of aircraft fires requires the applica- 
tion of both types of extinguishing agents. The incompati- 
bility of dry powder and protein foam has been solved by 
the introduction of fluoroprotein foam and aqueous film- 
forming foam (AFFF). Systematic small-scale testing was 
conducted by the Aeronautical Navigation Technical 
Service to determine the minimum application rates for 
dry powder and foam used simultaneously to extinguish 
three-dimensional fires within the time required for 
survival in the case of an aircraft engulfed in flames. The 
sequence of attack and timing of the application of the 
different agents was also studied. The most effective 
combination produced an extinguishing time of 30 sec- 
onds using a dry powder application rate of 1 kg/min/m 2 
and an AFFF application rate of 21/min/m 2 . 

The lowest extinguishing times were achieved when 
the agents were discharged simultaneously. The results 
were verified with full-scale testing and showed a sub- 
stantial correspondence. The study has led to the develop- 
ment of twin-agent aircraft crash trucks for rapid inter- 
vention of aircraft fires. 

1853 

COMPARATIVE TESTS ON LIQUID FUEL 

FIRES 

Fiorentini, C. (ed.) 

Fire International 6(68):65-78, September 1980 (Ger- 
man, French, English). 

Tests conducted by Italy's test center for the fire 
service and civil defense, to assess the extinguishing 
efficiency of foam-forming liquids coupled with suitable 
operating equipment, are described. Four available types 
of foam-producing agents were compared as a function of 
the fuel ignited, of the foam delivery system, of the 
specific flow-rate of the foam-forming solution, and of the 
pre-burn time. The 150 small-scale and real-scale tank 
and spill tests utilized fixed, manual, and sub-surface 
application methods. Protein, synthetic, fluoro-protein, 
and fluoro-synthetic foams were used on 9 to 600m 2 
surface fires and a 510m 3 capacity industrial-size tank 
fire. Results presented in tabular form show that: foam 



effectiveness varies with the liquid fuel's vapor pressure 
and flash point; a pouring application of foam is better 
than foam sprays; larger pre-burn time increases the 
difficulty of extinguishing single component fuels; and 
that small-scale test results can be extrapolated to large- 
scale fires with the use of some rational criteria. 

1854 

CUTTING THE STATIC HAZARD OF CO 2 

Butterworth, G.J.; Dowling, P.D. 
Fire 73(905):293-294, November 1980. 

The fire hazard posed by using carbon dioxide extin- 
guishing systems in flammable atmospheres is discussed. 
The hazard results from static electricity buildup during 
carbon dioxide discharge through an electrically conduc- 
tive nozzle. When the static charge reaches a sufficient 
level, it discharges as an electrostatic spark which can 
ignite flammable atmospheres. The static charge is a 
result of electron flow between small, frozen particles of 
solid carbon dioxide (contained in the extinguishant flow) 
and the containing surface of the nozzle. Several explo- 
sion incidents caused by this phenomena are described 
and methods to minimize the hazard are discussed. The 
basic approach involves the installation of insulating 
nozzle inserts such as those made from ceramic or nylon 
materials. 

1855 

THE ROLE OF WATER IN SUPPRESSION OF 

FIRE: A REVIEW 

Heskestad, G. 

Journal of Fire and Flammability 12:254-262, Octo- 
ber 1980. 

Past research into the use of water in fire suppression 
is reviewed and areas requiring further study are identi- 
fied. Critical elements of the suppression problem are 
discussed and specific studies on suppression of solid and 
liquid fuel fires are described. Relevant theoretical con- 
cepts, such as steady-state heat balance, critical flame 
temperature, and critical rate of gasification, are also 
reviewed. Studies into suppression of flame spread and 
large-scale experiments, to check laboratory predictions, 
are proposed as high priority research areas for the 
future. 

1856 

SPRINKLERS— WHY USE THEM? 

Anon. 

Face au Risque 1979(157):33-40, November 1979 

(French). 

The usefulness of sprinklers has been questioned 
because of their repeated spectacular failures in control- 
ling fires in France and Germany. Statistics, however, 
show that sprinklers provide the best protection against 



34 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Protection of Structures 



fire by limiting its effects. Their failures have resulted 
from disregard for recommendations relative to their 
utilization and elementary safety. Various causes of 
failure to contain the fire are examined in detail in the 
cases of a 1977 fire in the Ford warehouse in Germany; a 
1977 fire in a supermarket warehouse; and a 1973 fire in a 
polyurethane foam products enterprise in France. In- 
structions are given for maintenance and utilization of 
sprinklers in all active establishments; for the design and 
construction of new industrial and commercial buildings; 
and in the renovation and expansion of existing facilities 
with installation of fire control equipment. Fire protec- 
tion installation should be adapted to the degree of risk in 
case of the very grave fire risk. Several examples of such 
a fire are cited, where a sprinkler system failed to contain 
a fire. 

1857 

ARE SPRINKLERS THE BEST PROTECTION 

SYSTEM FOR COMPUTER ROOMS AND ANE- 

CHOIC CHAMBERS? ARE THEY NEEDED IN 

CONCRETE BUILDINGS? 

Anon. 

Record 1980(6):13-17, November-December, 1980. 

Installation of automatic sprinkler systems in "contro- 
versial" areas such as computer rooms, soundproofed 
chambers, or in concrete buildings, is discussed. Argu- 
ments against such placements are reviewed and infor- 
mation is given supporting the author's claim that such 
installations are justified. Arguments against their use 
include risk of unnecessary water damage in computer 
rooms, disruptive performance effects in anechoic cham- 
bers, and unnecessary expense in concrete buildings. 
However, economic losses due to fire are lower in sprink- 
lered locations, and proper configuration and installation 
of sprinkler systems can overcome any of the problems 
cited for their use in controversial areas. Specific exam- 
ples of proper configurations, and the level of protection 
they provide, are given. 

1858 

SPRINKLER OFFERS FIRE PROTECTION: AND 

STOPS WHEN THE JOB'S DONE 

Stack, T.A. 

Lab Data 10(3):19-22, Summer 1979. 

Methods for testing automatic, on-off type sprinkler 
systems are described. These sprinkler systems apply 
water to a fire in response to the heat generated and then 
automatically stop the water deluge when temperatures 
return to a safe level. Thus, adequate fire protection is 
provided and potential water damage is minimized. The 
principles of the sprinkler's operation are explained. 
Testing was performed in accordance with the Traveling 
Piled Stock Fire Test which simulates warehouse storage 
of corrugated cardboard cartons. Details on the test 
procedure including sprinkler head location, thermocou- 



ple placement, and combustibles used are provided, and 
times to extinguishment under different test conditions 
are given. Other tests of these systems are described 
including leakage tests, corrosion tests, and accelerated 
aging tests. Additional tests required to establish whether 
these sprinklers conform to Standard UL 199 are listed. 

1859 

FIRE TESTS TO COMPARE SPRINKLER DE- 
MANDS OF WET-PIPE AND DRY-PIPE SYS- 
TEMS 

Brown, J.R. 

Society of Fire Protection Engineers, Boston, MA, 

SFPE Technology Report 80-1, 8 pages, 1980. 

Wet-pipe and dry-pipe sprinkler systems were compa- 
ratively evaluated in model- and full-scale tests to deter- 
mine water delay and effect of freeburn times. Model 
testing was performed using a one-twelth-scale model of 
the full-scale test facility. In the tests, combustibles were 
ignited under both wet and dry systems and the water 
discharge delay and freeburn times were measured and 
compared. Details on the combustibles used and their 
arrangement, as well as sprinkler head configurations, 
are provided. It was found that the demands on dry-pipe 
systems are greater than those on wet-pipe systems. With 
equal freeburn times, dry-pipe systems need more sprin- 
kler operations than do wet-pipe systems in direct ratio to 
water-delay times when the water-delay time is over 52 
seconds. When water-delay times are under 52 seconds, 
the total sprinkler demands of the two systems are 
approximately the same. 

1860 

STATUS OF MOBILE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

Anon. 

Face au Risque 1980(163):29-35, May 1980 (French). 

Reports presented at a French meeting held at the end 
of March, 1980, are summarized. The reports deal with: 
the French market for extinguishers; French and Europe- 
an standards for extinguishers; the European standard 
for a portable fire extinguisher; difficulties of compara- 
tive testing of extinguishers; the guide for selection and 
installation of extinguishers; and Belgium experience 
with standards for extinguishers. Presently, French man- 
ufacturers offer water, powder, and gas devices, on 
wheels, with a 20 to 500 kg capacity. Control of extin- 
guisher production in a plant is compulsory. Difficulties 
in devising objective comparative tests for fire extinguish- 
ers are explained, using as examples a laboratory vibra- 
tion test for a powder device on wheels, and a fire 
simulation test. The French guide conceived for the 
public market proposes a method of qualitative and 
quantitative selection of a portable extinguisher. The 
presently enforced Belgium standard for portable extin- 
guishers for motor vehicles is cited as an example of 
significant functional improvement. 



35 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Protection of Structures 



1861 

FIRE EXTINGUISHING WITH FOAM — 

CHOOSE THE RIGHT KIND OF FOAM 

Ryderman, A. 

Brandforsvar 17(3):20-24, March 1980 (Swedish). 

Burning alcohol and other polar solvents, as well as 
mixtures of hydrocarbons and alcohol, require alcohol- 
resistant foam liquid fire extinguishers. Fluoroprotein 
base liquids with fluorocarbons added to them form a 
tight layer between the air and the burning matter and 
also protect against reignition. Synthetic alcohol-resis- 
tant foam liquids that form polymers consist of stabiliz- 
ers, coagulants, fluorocarbons and certain components 
that help form an elastic polymer layer. Both the fluoro- 
protein base liquids and the synthetic polymer forming 
foam liquid variants of the foam liquids that are alcohol 
resistant have a good fire extinguishing effect even for 
oils and gasoline. Such universal fire extinguishers will 
probably become more important in the future. Detergent 
foam liquids and protein form liquids that are used 
mainly for burning liquids can also be used for cooling 
and to prevent combustible liquids from turning into 
gases. The protein foam can cover vertical surfaces with a 
foam layer that remains where it was applied. The 
detergent and foam liquids are the cheapest alternatives, 
which explains their widespread use. 

1862 

FIRE EXTINGUISHING WITH WATER: A FIRE 

DEMAND MODEL 

Onnermark, B. 

Brandforsvar 17(2):18-19, March 1980 (Swedish). 

The Fire Demand Model (FDM) is a model that is used 
to estimate the extinguishing effect of water in a room 
fire. The research resulting in this model was done in the 
1970's in the U.S. at the Mission Research Corporation in 
California. The central part of the research has been the 
development of a physical-mathematical model with 
which it is possible to estimate the extingushing effect of 
water. It was developed for computer calculations. 

1863 

ANALYSIS OF EXPERIENCES COVERING MIN- 
ERAL OIL FIRES 

Bohl, P. 

VFDB 28(3): 104-108, September 1979 (German). 

The data on fighting mineral oil fires were collected 
from 700 sources, classified according to certain parame- 
ters, and analyzed for the purpose of revising the German 
Standard on the "Fixed Foam - Extinguishing Installa- 
tions." The data were classified according to the frequen- 
cy of fires with idential parameters. For each class, water 
flow rates versus extinction time were recorded. The 
results indicate that, for each foaming agent, there is a 



critical (threshold) flow rate below which extinction is not 
possible. Comparison of the four foaming agents shows 
that, at equal extinction times, special (light-water) and 
fluoroprotein foams require the lowest flow rates. Consid- 
erably higher flow rates were required with protein 
foams. The data presented justify the standard flow rates 
for all foaming agents until it is proven that foam and/or 
extinction installation also are effective at lower rates. 

e. FIRE LOADS AND HEAT EFFECTS ON 
STRUCTURES 

1864 

THE FIRE PERFORMANCE OF ROOM STRUC- 
TURES WITH INCREASED INSULATION TEST- 
ED UNDER FLASHOVER CONDITIONS 

Prusaczyk, J.E.; Boardway, R.M. 
Journal of Fire and Flammability 12:314-325, Octo- 
ber 1980. 

Tests to determine the fire performance of insulated 
rooms are described. Initial experiments were performed 
on the fire performance characteristics, at preflashover 
conditions, in rooms with increased insulation, i.e., be- 
yond Federal Home Administration specifications. The 
room had an 8 x 12 foot floor, with an 8-foot ceiling height. 
Rooms of idential geometry were also tested under 
flashover conditions. Two thirty-pound wooden cribs were 
used to produce the flashover conditions in these tests. 
Uninsulated rooms were used a control. Results of the 
initial tests indicated that the level of insulation had no 
effect on fire performance; rather, interior wall surfacing 
was the significant factor. Additionally, no significant 
thermal effect was recorded for insulated rooms under 
flashover condition. Thus the level of insulation does not 
appear to affect the fire performance characteristics of 
insulated structures. 

1865 

SINGLE-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL FIRE AND 

LIVE LOADS SURVEY 

Issen, L.A. 

National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of 
Commerce, Washington, D.C., NBSIR 80-2155, 176 
pages, December 1980. 

Availability: NTIS 

A fire and live-load survey of 359 residences (61 single 
family attached (SFA), 200 single family detached (SFD), 
and 98 mobile homes (MH)), using an inventory technique 
rather than actual weighing of the room contents is 
reviewed. The survey, performed in the metropolitan 
Washington, D.C. area, provided information on live and 
fire loads which would be used to develop a realistic fire 
test exposure survey for single family homes that would 
be useful in a similar nationwide survey. Details on the 
survey methodology and data collection forms are provid- 



36 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Protection of Structures 



ed, and the collected data are presented graphically. The 
fire load, in terms of composition and of an equivalent 
8000 Btu/lb fuel, is reported. The three types of homes 
had similar live loads and movable contents fire loads, but 
the mobile home room finish fire load was higher because 
of the more extensive use of plywood wall finishes. 

The weighted mean (according to floor area) of the live 
load observed for each of the three types of housing was 
approximately 10 lb/sq. ft. The corresponding weighted 
mean movable contents fire loads were (approximately): 
SFA. 7 lb/sq. ft.: SFD, 7 lb/sq. ft.; MH, 6 lb/sq. ft. The 
total weighted mean fire loads for contents and finish 
were (approximately): SFA. 13 lb/sq. ft.; SFD, 13 lb/sq. ft.: 
MH, 18 lb/sq. ft Also calculated were the nominal 0.95 
fractile live and fire loads. 

1866 

FIRE PERFORMANCE OF SELECTED RESI- 
DENTIAL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION UNDER 
ROOM BURNOUT CONDITIONS 

Fang, J.B. 

National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of 
Commerce, Washington, D.C., NBSIR 80-2134, 79 
pages, December 1980. 

Availability: NTIS PB 81-144 404 

Seven large-scale room burnout fire tests, conducted 
with a set of selected residential floor-ceiling assemblies 
to provide data on the performance of the assemblies are 
discussed. A comparison will be made with the results in 
future tests on the same constructions in a fire endurance 
furnace. Four wood-frame and three light gauge steel- 
frame, load-bearing assemblies, each measuring 
10.7x10.7 ft, were exposed from the underside to a fire 
environment produced by the burning of typical furniture 
and interior finish contents of a room. Test measure- 
ments taken included temperature, floor deflection and 
static pressures at wall, heat flux and air velocities, and 
smoke and gas generation. Details on the measurement 
equipment are provided, and experimental data are 
presented in tabular form. 

Test results show that the fire resistance periods based 
on flame-through of floor assembly and structural failure 
of floor joists, varied from 10 to 12 minutes for floors with 
unprotected wood joists. It was 4 minutes or less for floors 
with unprotected steel joists. The addition of a protective 
ceiling layer of 13 mm thick gypsum board increased the 
fire resistance time of the steel-joisted floor assembly by 
approximately 12 minutes. 



1867 

JOINT US-USSR SEMINAR ON MATHEMATI- 
CAL METHODS FOR ESTIMATING THE FIRE 
ENDURANCE OF STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLIES 

Levine. R.S. (ed.) 

National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of 
Commerce, Washington, D.C., NBSIR 80-2188, 213 
pages, December 1980. 

Availability: NTIS PB 81-159 956 

Papers presented May 14, 1980 at a joint US-USSR 
seminar on mathematical methods for estimating the fire 
endurance of structural assemblies are compiled. The 
seminar was arranged, in cooperation with the U.S. 
Department of Housing and Urban Development, by the 
US-USSR Panel on Fire Resistance of Buildings and 
Structures as part of their continuing agreement to 
cooperate in this field. It is the first in a series of planned 
annual seminars on specific applied fire safety research 
topics. Eleven papers are reproduced in the report, 
including supportive graphic presentations of data and 
mathematical formulas. Topic areas range from fire 
studies of wood, steel, and concrete structures to various 
approaches on structrual fire resistance. 

1868 

FIRE DEVELOPMENT IN RESIDENTIAL BASE- 
MENT ROOMS 

Fang, J.B.; Breese, J.N. 

Natonal Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of 
Commerce, Washington, D.C., NBSIR 80-2120, 97 
pages, October 1980. 

As part of a multi-phase program to develop a rational 
test procedure for evaluating the fire resistance of resi- 
dential floor assemblies, sixteen burnout tests were 
conducted to investigate the fire behavior in typical 
residential recreation rooms in single-family homes. The 
hour-long tests performed in two instrumented test 
rooms, 10.7x10.7x8 ft. and 10.7x16x8 ft, furnished 
with household furniture and lined with interior finish 
materials typical of actual occupancies, are described. 
The temperature, heat flux, static pressure, smoke densi- 
ty, gas velocity, species concentration, and oxygen con- 
sumption were measured. Quantitative evaluations were 
made of the effects of such parameters as the ventilation, 
fire load density, initial item ignited, room size, and 
thermal and flammable properties of the wall and ceiling 
materials on the fire severity. Based on the experimental 
data, a fire exposure temperature-time curve which is 
different from the ASTM E 119 curve, was developed for 
testing the fire resistance of such building structures. 
Appendices to the report present information on heat 
release calculations and the incident heat flux. 



37 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Protection of Structures 



f. FIRE PREVENTION AND HAZARD 
REDUCTION 

1869 

FUTURE PROTECTION FOR ELDERLY 

Anon. 

Fire 73(904):263, October 1980. 

Information from a report prepared by the Home Office 
on fire protection costs to Britain's National Health 
Service and personal social services, particularly with 
regard to the care of the elderly, is reviewed. Data on 
financial expenditures on fire safety precautions taken by 
local medical facilities are summarized and the trend of 
rising costs is noted. Statistics on hospital fire deaths 
from 1971 to 1977 are discussed and shown in tabular 
form. The focusing of financial resources on the most 
important fire risks is suggested as one way to stabilize 
the rising costs in this specialized area of fire protection 
activity. 

1870 

TESTING SPRAYED FIREPROOFING 

Skolnik, A.D. 

Progressive Architecture 1980:87, October 1980. 

Test standards being developed to determine the per- 
formance characteristics of sprayed-on fireproofing ap- 
plied to structural elements are reviewed. While standard 
tests such as ASTM El 19 evaluate the fire resistance 
qualities of sprayed fireproofing, the standards discussed 
are aimed at determining other characteristics relevant 
to the material's actual in-use performance subsequent to 
application. These characteristics relate to the materials 
ability to withstand the following physical stresses: de- 
flection, bond impact, cohesion/adhesion, compression, 
corrosion, air erosion, abrasion, and impact penetration. 
Each of these are discussed briefly and the state of their 
development is indicated. The anticipated publication of 
standards for specifying requirements for thickness and 
density is also noted. 

1871 

FIRE IN AN UNDERGROUND PARKING LOT 

Anon. 

Face au Risque 1980(166):26-27, October 1980. 

A disastrous fire which occurred in an underground 
parking lot of an apartment house is analyzed. The lot 
was divided into 20 parking spaces, separated by expand- 
ed metal wire fences and cardboard, and was provided 
with metal plate doors. Many parking spaces were used 
for storage. The fire started in the partition between two 
parking spaces. In four hours, 16 cars were damaged or 
completely destroyed. Concrete slabs cracked in two 
places to a 3-4 cm depth. Firefighting was hindered by 
heavy smoke, metal doors, and heat radiation in the main 
driveway. Peculiar features of such a parking lot with 



fa 



Pi 



partitions, are heat confinement to a small space and the 
presence of different stored objects. It is recommendec 
that partition walls be built of a hard, nontransparenl 
and noncombustible material, e.g. perpend Oxmdstone) 
and that fans be installed outside parking spaces. 

g. PRESSURE EFFECTS ON STRUCTURES 

[No entries] 

h. PROTECTIVE COMPONENTS AND CONTROL 
SYSTEMS 

1872 

FIRE RESISTING STRUCTURAL ELEMEN r 

AND THEIR CONSTRUCTION 

Anon. 

Fire Protection 43(519):14-16, October 1980. 

Contents of a recent Building Research Establishment 
(BRE) report entitled Guidelines for the Construction o) 
Fire Resisting Structural Elements are summarized. The 
report presents an overview of the British method oi 
evaluating fire resisting structural elements and theii 
construction. It is noted that building regulations include 
schedules of specifications that detail the characteristics 
of elements that are "deemed" to insure sufficient fire 
resistance. There are also fire test procedures which are 
used to actually test fire resistant qualitites of these 
elements. The BRE report integrates these analysis 
procedures with test data which has been documented bj 
various manufacturers, trade organizations, and testing 
laboratories. Also discussed in the report are building 
code provisions, loadbearing testing, proper data use, test 
limitations, concrete structures, and the future of struc 
tural fire protection. 

1873 

WHY SMOKE DETECTORS DON'T FULFILL| 

GREAT EXPECTATIONS FOR SAVING LIVES 

Nailen, R.L. 

Fire Engineering 133(9):47-48, 51-52, 57, September 

1980. 



Even with the increased use of smoke detectors ir 
buildings, the fire loss and death rates have continued tc 
rise. The many reasons for this trend are reviewed. Ar 
apathetic homeowner is a major problem, especially ir 
the lower income group. Persons installing smoke detec 
tors must be made aware that there is also the need tc 
have a planned exit procedure in the event of a fire. The} 
also must be sure the detector is properly installed anc 
that regular maintenance is scheduled. There is a ques 
tion as to whether the escape time after the detectoi 
sounds an alarm is sufficient, or if it will even awaken the 
occupants. Recommendations by the Better Sleep Council 



38 



Oft 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Protection of Structures 



for home fire detection which take the awakening ques- 
tion into consideration are presented. 

1874 

FLAME RESPONSIVE CONTROL CIRCUIT 

Miles, G.M. 

U.S. Patent No. 4,235,587, U.S. CI. 431/73, 431/68, 
431/78 (Int. CI. F23N 5/08), Appl. April 9, 1979, 
Disci. November 25, 1980, Assignee: Honeywell Inc., 
Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

An electronic device is described which will respond to 
a furnace burner flame upon flame-out, reacting either by 
reigniting the fuel flow or by shutting off the fuel flow if 
the furnace is not operating properly. Electronic circuitry 
using a photoelectric cell senses flame loss through 
changes in the cell's resistance and responds accordingly. 
The invention overcomes the problem of slow response 
time experienced by earlier sensing devices. Background 
on the invention is reviewed and details of its construc- 
tion and operation are given. Schematic diagrams of the 
electronic circuitry are also provided. 

1875 

FLAME DETECTION SYSTEM USING A VOLT- 
AGE CLIPPER MEANS 

Schilling, R.A. 

U.S. Patent No. 4,238,184 U.S. CI. 431/59, 431/74, 
431/78, 340/579 (Int. CI. F23Q 9/08), Appl. July 20, 
1979, Disci. December 9, 1980, Assignee: Honeywell 
Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

An electronic system using one set of electrodes for 
both burner flame ignition and flame detection is report- 
ed. The system uses a high energy spark across a pair of 
electrodes to initially ignite the fuel flow. Once the flame 
is ignited, the high energy circuitry is shunted out of the 
system and the flame detection circuitry, using the same 
electrodes in a sensor mode, remains active. The system is 
said to be less expensive and less complicated than 
previous units that used separate sets of electrodes for the 
different functions. Background on the invention is given 
and details of the system's construction and operation, 
including an electronic schematic, are provided. 



1876 

ADJUSTABLE DRY SPRINKLER HAVING A 

LATCHING MECHANISM CONTROLLED BY A 

SLEEVE 

Sclafani, J.R. 

U.S. Patent No. 4,237,982, U.S. CI. 169/37, 151/6, 

285/86 (Int. CI. A62C 37/10), Appl. May 1, 1978, 

Disci. December 9, 1980, Assignee: The Reliable 

Automatic Sprinkler Co., Mount Vernon, New 

York. 

An adjustable sprinkler, which allows for vertical 
adjustment of the sprinkler assembly without the risk of 
uncoupling the assembly from the extinguishant supply 
pipe line, is described. The sprinkler makes use of a 
simple sleeve and latching mecbanism permitting its safe 
adjustment. Thus, unlike previous assemblies, no inter- 
mittent coupling or fittings are required to adjust the 
sprinkler height to conform with varying ceiling heights 
which in turn saves construction time and installation 
costs. Background information and details on the inven- 
tions construction and operation, including illustrations, 
are provided. 

1877 

SPRINKLER HEAD HAVING A PLURALITY OF 

SUPPORTING LEGS 

Hattori, T. 

U.S. Patent No. 4,228,859, U.S. CI. 169/57, 169/40 
(Int. CI. A62C 37/08), Appl. November 22, 1978, 
Disci. October 21, 1980, Assignee: Inventor. 

A recently patented sprinkler head designed for use 
with jet water or other fire extinguishing liquids is 
described. The head has a heat-activated release valve 
and multiple supporting legs with a multi-outlet stream 
deflector in a discoidal body. The primary benefit of the 
head is its low manufacturing cost and wider sprinkling 
range. A detailed discussion of its construction and 
operation is presented. 

1878 

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FUEL IGNI- 
TION SYSTEM INCLUDING COMPLETE CY- 
CLING OF FLAME RELAY PRIOR TO TRIAL 
FOR IGNITION 
Matthews, R.B. 

U.S. Patent No. 4,230,444, U.S. CI. 431/6, 431/26, 
431/45, 431/46, 431/71 (Int. CI. F23Q 9/08), Appl. 
April 17, 1978, Disci. October 28, 1980, Assignee: 
Johnson Controls, Inc., Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

A patent for a fuel ignition system, said to operate 
more safely than previous units and which could be used 
in typical furnace arrangements having a pilot light and 
main fuel supply, is reviewed. The system incorporates an 



39 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Protection of Structures 



ignition-timing device and flame-sensing circuits to check 
the operation of the pilot light In response to a thermo- 
static signal, the system first opens the pilot light fuel 
supply valve and ignites the pilot light, using a high 
energy spark, then checks for the proper operation of the 
pilot flame. If the pilot is operating normally, the main 
fuel supply line valve is opened and the primary burner 
flame is ignited by the pilot light. Should a flame-out 
occur, the circuitry will recycle for re-ignition, or will 
shut off the pilot and main fuel supply valves in the event 
of a malfunction. Schematic diagrams, background infor- 
mation and operational details are provided. 

1879 

FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM 

Iida, M. 

U.S. Patent No. 4,227,577, U.S. CI. 169/61, 169/46, 
340/522, 340/573 (Int. CI. A62C 37/04), Appl. April 
12, 1978, Disci. October 14, 1980, Assignee: Security 
Patrols Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan. 

Protective circuitry for use with automatic fire-extin- 
guishing systems, to prevent the automatic operation of 
the extinguishers while people are present in the protect- 
ed area, is described. Such a system would eliminate the 
health hazard to people from exposure to extinguishants 
accidently released due to an erroneous fire sensor signal. 
The system consists of a typical autc...auc b._'i finishing 
system, activated by high sensitivity fire detectors, cou- 
pled to an "intruder" sensing device. Intruder sensing is 
accomplished either by sensors which can detect radia- 
tion energy from the human body, or with simple electro- 
mechanical sensors located at room openings. The intrud- 
er circuitry will prevent extinguishant from being re- 
leased on the occupants. Various operational modes, such 
as automatic, manual override, or stand-by are attainable 
with switching mechanisms. A detailed explanation of the 
invention's operation is provided and illustrations are 
included. 

1880 

AUTOMATIC SODA-ACID FIRE EXTINGUISH- 
ER SYSTEM 

Byun, D.J. 

U.S. Patent No. 12J1.4M U.S. CI. 169/57, 169/27, 
169/61 (Int. CI. A62C 35/04), Appl. October 23, 1978, 
Disci. November 4, 1980, Assignees: Inventor. 

An easily operated soda-acid extinguishing system of 
simple design, which can be activated automatically or 
manually, is reviewed. The system uses a sulfuric acid- 
soda chemical combination that when mixed in the 
reaction chamber produces a carbon dioxide/water extin- 
guishant which is then piped to a dispersion nozzle 
located in the room on fire. The system can be operated 
manually by a switch or automatically by fire sensors. 
System reliability and ease of operation is said to improve 



fire safety in buildings Construction and operation of the 
system are explained accompanied by detailed illu 
tions. 

1881 

FOCUS ON FIRE DOORS 

Anon. 

Minnesota Fire Chief '17(2):12-13, November-Decem- 
ber 1980. 

The role of fire doors in building fire safety is discussed 
and problems which may prevent their proper operation 
are reviewed. Fire doors are installed to protect openings 
in fire walls or into enclosed stairwells and elevator 
shafts. The three main types of fire doors are: swinging 
doors, sliding doors, and rolling overhead doors. The fire 
door's purpose is to prevent the spread of smoke and 
flames. However, they are extremely vulnerable to being * 
blocked open, thus preventing them from functioning 
properly. For swinging fire doors, proper operation means 
that the door must close and the latch must catch so it 
cannot be pulled open without turning the handle. Sliding 
fire doors often cannot shut when needed because objects 
have been left in the doorway or the tracks are clogged so 
it won't slide easily. Overhead rolling fire doors may not 
operate due to damaged guides through which the door 
passes and the spring needs to be reset after each use. As 
noted, fire doors should be checked weekly and thorough- 
ly inspected yearly. Marking the fire doors with stickers 
to remind employees of the importance of these doors is 
also recommended. 

1882 

EVALUATION TESTING OF THE FIRE PER- 
FORMANCE OF FIRE RESISTIVE BUILDING 
ASSEMBLY PENETRATION PROTECTION MA- 
TERIALS, DEVICES AND SYSTEMS 
Przybyla, L. 
Lab Data ll(l):3-7, Winter 1980. 

A recently developed Underwriters' Laboratory test 
designed to evaluate the performance of fire-stops is 
explained. Fire-stop systems or devices are intended to 
prevent the passage of fire from the compartment of 
origin through openings in a fire resistant wall or floor to 
another compartment. Such openings are often used to 
provide passageways for electrical cables, pipes, ducts, or 
other conduits. The test is designed to determine both fire 
performance and post-fire structural integrity. Specifical- 
ly, the fire stops are subjected to fire tests in accordance 
with UL 263. the Standard for Safety for Fire Tests of 
Building Construction and Materials. After fire exposure, 
the fire stops are then subjected to hose stream tests (UL 
10B) to evaluate their structural integrity. The perfor- 
mance rating is based on the time period of acceptable 
fire performance. Further information is published in the 
UL Building Materials Directory. 



40 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Protection of Structures 



1883 

TWO LEVEL PROTECTION — A GROWING 

TREND 

Johnson, J.E. 

Society of Fire Protection Engineers, Boston, MA, 

SFPE Technology Report No. 80-4, 7 pages, 1980. 

The growing trend in two-level fire protection of 
buildings is discussed. While two-level protection basical- 
ly relates to detection as the first level and extinguish- 
ment as the second, the actual concept is somewhat more 
complex than this simple representation. The sophistica- 
tion of today's detection systems makes it possible for 
such systems to not only simply detect the presence of fire 
by reacting to one or more of its three main signs (heat, 
flames, and smoke), but also to initiate any number of 
protective actions prior to the automatic activation of 
sprinklers or other extinguishing systems. These protec- 
tive actions range from closing fire doors, pressurizing 
stairwells, and halting elevators to signaling on-site 
personnel, sounding alarms, and notifying the fire depart- 
ment. The various types of equipment used in two level 
protection systems are described and case studies of 
European experiences are reviewed. 

i. WATER SUPPLIES 

1884 

THE SEA SOLVES GIBRALTAR'S FIRE-FIGHT- 
ING PROBLEMS 

Gonzalez, D.J. 

Fire International 6(68):59-61, September 1980. 

A gravity-feed, independent sea water system has been 
used to supply water for fire fighting on the isthmus of 
Gibraltar, Spain. A limited annual rainfall makes potable 



water supplies scarce and unavailable for fire protection 
purposes. The rocky topography of the area was used to 
full advantage in designing the supply system. All of the 
reservoirs, except one storage tank, were hewn out of the 
limestone which forms the geological structure of the 
Rock. Nine reservoirs, with a capacity of 13.6 million 
liters, are currently in use. Submersible pumps are used 
to feed the reservoirs from the harbor. The responsibility 
for adequate water supplies and distribution of hydrants 
falls on the local fire authority. By agreement, the fire 
authority conducts the testing of hydrants, while the 
water undertakers carry out the installation and repair of 
the system. If the need arises to increase the supply, new 
relatively low-cost intakes and pumps would be sufficient 
to augment the established system. 

1885 

PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THE DE- 
SIGN OF CORROSION-RESISTANT PIPING 
SYSTEMS 

Mowrer, D.W. 

Society of Fire Protection Engineers, Boston, MA, 

SFPE Technology Report No. 80-3, 9 pages, 1980. 

Various considerations in the design of corrosion-resis- 
tant piping for use in fire protection systems are re- 
viewed. The mechanisms of pipe corrosion are identified 
and explained. These mechanisms include uniform, pit- 
ing, galvanic, selective leaching, stray current, and micro- 
bial corrosion. Methods to retard these corrosive mecha- 
nisms are summarized including use of internal pipe 
linings, electrical cathodic protection, and external coat- 
ings. The costs of various piping materials are compared 
and the performance characteristics of a wide variety of 
pipes are discussed. Galvanized steel, carbon steel, ductile 
iron (lined and unlined), PVC, fiberglass composites and 
asbestos cement are covered. 



FIRE SAFETY 



a. AGRICULTURE AND WILDLANDS 

[For more complete coverage of the forest fire 

literature see Forest Fire Control Abstracts 

(Canada).] 

1886 

INFRARED HEAT DETECTION IN FIRE CON- 
TROL OPERATIONS IN MANITOBA FORESTS 

Buck. R.J. 

Emergency Planning Digest 7(4):6-7, October-De- 
cember 1980. 

Infrared heat detectors, being used to locate unseen 
ground fires in the wooded areas of Manitoba (Canada), 



are described. A drought in the winter of 1976 and 
through the spring and early summer of 1977, led to fears 
of a major fire outbreak. Initally, polaroid pictures were 
taken of the hot spot but these were difficult to interpret. 
A permanent TV-type film is now taken making any hot 
spot easier to find. This is an airborne system used in 
early morning, whose primary application is to detect hot 
spots in extinguished fires, allowing faster mobilization of 
fire crews. The infrared heat scanner can also be used as a 
tool to detect heat losses from buildings and industrial 
processes. Several photographs, including a TV-type film 
image showing how a hot area covered by snow can be 
seen, are included. 



41 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Safety 

1887 

RESEARCH INTO THE FLAMM ABILITY OF 

GRASSLAND IN AUSTRALIA 

Barber, JR.; Pratt, B.T. 

Fire International 1980(69):46-50, December 1980. 

Research programs relating to the grassland-type fire 
behavior and rural fire prevention in Australia are 
discussed. Included in the research program were: 1) 
repetitive field sampling and laboratory work in order to 
measure and/or calculate the moisture content of the 
vegetation and soil and the seasonal growth or fuel 
quantity; 2) recording weather conditions; and 3) photo- 
graphing the vegetation at sampling sites as a visual 
record of the growth and type of sampled vegetation. 
Eighteen locations throughtout Victoria were selected for 
the study. In-depth analysis of the study has not been 
completed; however, preliminary assessments indicate 
that: 1) the procedures adopted for sample collection and 
laboratory measurements were effective although statis- 
tically improved results could be achieved by taking more 
random samples with greater separation per site; and 2) 
the loss in moisture is relatively rapid in the early curing 
stage. Further results will be presented at the conclusion 
of the in-depth analysis. 

1888 

FIRE PREVENTION — ANALYSIS AND EVALU- 
ATION 

Treubig, R.J.; Nickey, B. 

Fire Management Notes 41(3):7-8, Summer 1980. 

A method to statistically prove the effectiveness of 
forest fire prevention efforts is presented. The method is 
outlined and discussed in terms of a logical flow chart. 
Fire causes are divided into those which are susceptible to 
fire prevention and those which are not. Fire weather 
records are integrated into the data to correct for severe 
weather conditions affecting fire patterns. The method 
was used to evaluate special versus regular fire preven- 
tion efforts in Livingston Parish, Louisiana. The local fire 
law enforcement agent evaluated the fire prevention 
efforts made by the towns participating in the study and 
in each case was able to determine the primary reasons 
for their success for failure. 

1889 

FIRE MANAGEMENT; A NEW IMAGE 

Bailey, D.W. 

Fire Management Notes 41(2):3-4, Spring 1980. 

A new fire management plan has been implemented by 
the Northern Region's Troy Ranger District, Kootenai 
National Forest, which includes using fires in forest 
planning as a component of the ecosystem. The objectives 
of the fire management plan are: 1) to include wildfire 
considerations in meeting land and resource management 
objectives defined in the land-use planning process; 2) to 



return the natural role of fire to certain areas in the 
environment and use fire effectively as a management 
tool; 3) to provide an effective wildland fire protection 
organization when needed; 4) to develop a cost-effective 
fire management program by reducing suppression costs; 
and 5) to identify wildfire potential and fire ecology by 
areas, and to interpret the effects of fire on the current 
forest ecosystem. During the 1979 season, three fires were 
allowed to burn under confined conditions rather than be 
extinguished. The fire management plan recognizes and 
uses fire as a natural ecological agent and also gears fire 
suppression expenditures to land and resource values. 

b. COMMERCIAL FACILITIES 

[No entries] 

c. ELECTRICAL 

1890 

RECESSED LIGHTING, INSULATION, AND 

FIRE 

Cooksey, P.N. 

The International Fire Chief 46(9):50-51, September 

1980. 

Tests made on the effect of increased attic insulation, 
which is being extensively used to reduce heating costs, 
over recessed lighting fixtures, are reported. The Assis- 
tant Fire Chief of Oklahoma City began an investigation 
after it was established that many residential fires were 
started in attic areas surrounding recessed light fixtures, 
regardless of the type of insulating material being used. 
Poor installation, partly because of inadequate building 
code requirements, was established as the major cause. 
By simulating various installation situations, tests were 
conducted which showed a temperature in excess of 650°F 
was reached after only one hour and 45 minutes for a 
fixture without adequate air clearance. This high temper- 
ature caused charring of wooden joists, melting of wire 
insulation, and the burning of paint on the fixture. A five- 
sided metal enclosure which assures a three-inch clear- 
ance around the fixture for air circulation, was found to 
keep temperatures at 230°F or below, well under ignition 
temperature of combustible members in an attic space. 

As a result of the test findings, Oklahoma City changed 
their building code to require the use of the five-sided box, 
and since adoption in May 1978, there has been a 
significant reduction in insulation-related residential 
fires. 



42 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1891 

ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT: WHAT PROTEC- 
TION IS REQUIRED? 

Perkins, G; Berenblut, B.J. 

Fire Surveyor 9(5):28-33, October 1980. 

Various considerations in determining the nature and 
extent of fire protection of electronic equipment are 
discussed. General considerations are given and the 
susceptibility of electronic equipment to fire damage is 
emphasized. The need for proper information in decision- 
making is noted, followed by a discussion of the pros and 
cons of various fire detection and extinguishing systems. 
This discussion includes a description of the thermal, 
chemical, toxic, electrical, and other properties of six 
types of extinguishing systems. Contingency planning 
and overall evaluation of a protection strategy is also 
addressed. Protection strategy evaluation is described in 
terms of calculating the expected "loss rate" based on 
analysis of pertinent data. 

1892 

FLAME-GUARD FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLA- 
TIONS 

Dick, W.P.A. 

U.S. Patent No. 1232,742, U.S. CI. 169/58, 52/1, 
52/232, 169/28, 428/43, 428/307 (Int. CI. A62C 
37/14), Appl. June 1, 1978, Disci. November 11, 
1980, Assignee: Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson, 
Stockholn, Sweden. 

A protective device designed to safeguard electrical 
cables during a fire is described. The device consists of a 
cable-like string of capsules containing an extinguishant. 
In the event of a fire, the string of capsules, which would 
be wrapped around an electrical cable or cables, would 
react to the heat, breaking the capsules and releasing the 
extinguishant to protect the electrical wires. The capsules 
can be constructed from a variety of materials, but 
preferably should contain a halon-based extinguishant. 
Cross-section drawings of different capsule string ar- 
rangements and a brief description of each are included. 

d. INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES 

1893 

INDUSTRIAL FIRE-FIGHTING AS A MOVE 

TOWARDS GREATER SELF-REGULATION 

Scott, A.H. 

Fire Protection 43(520):22-25, November 1980. 

The need for industrial firms, both large and small, to 
evaluate the adequacy of fixed fire protection and their 
own firefighting potential and to determine the need for 
and, if necessary, purchase special equipment and appli- 
ances is emphasized. The drawbacks of relying totally on 
local public fire departments are demonstrated through 



Fire Safety 

two examples. Because response time is critical, particu- 
larly for chemical fires, the value of an on-site fire 
brigade is obvious. It is also noted that most local fire 
departments would not have the special equipment or 
extinguishants necessary for combatting chemical fires. 
The firefighting scheme of the ICI Plastics Division of 
Bexford, Ltd. is described and the need for good relations 
between public and industrial firefighting brigades is 
discussed. 

1894 

TOXIC, FLAMMABLE CHEMICALS, GASES 

BREED TROUBLE IN ELECTRONICS PLANTS 

Nailen, R.L. 

Fire Engineering 133(10):54-57, October 1980. 

The rapid growth of the electronics industry which 
produces microcircuits and microprocessors, and the 
resultant use of chemicals, which is approaching a value 
of half a billion dollars a year, is discussed. The toxic or 
explosive fire hazards involved are reviewed, and fire 
incidents involving chemical spills are reported. Two 
specific incidents in Santa Clara (California), which has 
many industries of this type, are detailed. The program 
developed following a chemical survey of all commercial 
occupancies in Santa Clara is outlined. Steps to be taken 
to implement the program would include: the hiring of 
two chemical hazard assistance specialists and a chemical 
vehicle with trailer, as well as the creation of a special 
chemical hazard unit within the fire departments; opera- 
tional plans for chemical emergencies; educational pro- 
grams for industry, fire personnel and the community; 
and the establishment of a West Coast facility for 
research, testing, and information retrieval relating to 
hazardous chemicals. 

1895 

STORAGE COLLAPSE KILLS FIVE 

Best, R. 

Fire Command 47(11):20-21, 24, November 1980. 

On March 24, 1980, a fire incident at a wood-products 
company in Lewiston, Idaho, led to the deaths of five 
people and the injury of nine others. The event occurred 
in a warehouse facility for the storage of baled tissue 
paper. Background information on the fire is provided, 
and subsequent efforts to extinguish it are described. The 
deaths resulted when water-soaked bales of tissue paper 
(each weighing 500-700 pounds) toppled over onto fire- 
fighters. No evidence was found that identified the exact 
source of the fire, although welding done earlier in the 
day was thought to be the probable cause. Information on 
where to obtain material on the fire protection require- 
ments for storage of rolled or baled paper is given. A floor 
plan and sectional view of bale storage, and several 
photographs are included. 



43 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Safety 

1896 

DESIGNING FIRE PROTECTION TO LIMIT 

MONETARY LOSS 

Deacon, F.L. 

Society of Fire Protection Engineers, Boston, MA, 

SFPE Technology Report No. 80-2, 7 pages, 1980. 

Major considerations in the fire safety of materials 
stored on large warehouse racks, and ways in which 
various approaches to fire protection affect storage fire 
safety are discussed. These considerations may not be 
sufficiently addressed in standard criteria set for storage 
safety. The storage configurations addressed are: double- 
row rack storage (to 20 feet high), cantilever rack storage 
(also to 20 feet high), and high-bay storage (up to 50 feet 
high). Fire tests on each of these storage configurations 
indicates that in-rack sprinklers, in addition to ceiling 
sprinklers, can reduce losses to below normal expectancy. 
The fire tests used are briefly described. Other methods to 
reduce loss expectancy not addressed in standard storage 
protection criteria are also noted, including use of fire- 
walls, redundant water supplies, and sectional control 
valving. 

1897 

FIRE SAFETY: INDUSTRY MUST "LOOK TO 

ITSELF" 

Scott, A. 

Fire Engineers Journal 40(120):35-37, December 

1980. 

The present British statutory requirements pertaining 
to industrial fire prevention are examined to determine 
whether they are adequate, and if not, what changes are 
needed. It is felt that complete reliance cannot be placed 
on public fire brigades, since they can be out on another 
call when an emergency arises. The establishment of in- 
house fire brigades and the storage of the necessary 
firefighting equipment, foams, and dry powder is recom- 
mended. The industrial brigade should cooperate fully 
with the public fire service. The determination of ade- 
quate protection and the proper maintenance of industri- 
al firefighting equipment must become more the concern 
of industry than of the public fire service. 

1898 

MOVES TOWARDS GREATER SELF REGULA- 
TION 

Cooper, D. 

Fire Engineers Journal 40(120):33-34, December 

1980. 

How more self regulation would affect management's 
attitudes towards fire safety are discussed along with 
reasons for the attitude presently held. Currently, compli- 
ance with existing legislation is expensive and felt to not 
always be effective, creating resentment among the 



businessmen. Also, incidence of life and property losses 
have not substantially improved with the advent of the 
legislation. Allowing managers a greater measure of self 
regulation should lead to a more receptive attitude 
towards fire safety control, which could be re-enforced by 
providing educational advice and training in fire safety. A 
chief executive must become involved and aware of the 
fire problem to ensure that fire-safe practices are main- 
tained. 

1899 

PROTECTION FOR AN OLD PEOPLE'S 

HOME— AND FOR A CAR FERRY 

Anon. 

Fire International 1980(69):35, 69, December 1980. 

The fire protection system for the St. Joseph's Old 
People's Home in Holland, the BS-3, introduced by 
Autronica A/S of Norway, is described. The system 
employs ionization smoke detectors which can produce an 
analogue output, making them measuring instruments. 
The detectors are connected to a control panel which is 
the deciding unit on fire alarms. Each detector is identi- 
fied by a three-digit location code which can be visually 
displayed at the control panel. The alarm systems are all 
connected to the fire brigade. A two-way communication 
connection to every room allows the control operator to 
query the origin of any alarm. The main advantage of the 
system is its accuracy in locating fires. The car ferry 
system is not mentioned in the article. 

1900 

FIRE PROTECTION BUILT INTO THE ORGANI- 
ZATION 

Anon. 

Brandforsvar 17(l):5-8, January 1980 (Swedish). 

The larger the percentage of employees that have 
received education in the fire protection of a particular 
industry, the more effectively the industry will be pro- 
tected. Ninety-nine percent of the fire protection of an 
industry should be based on prevention. An example of a 
well-protected industrial operation is Hallsta Paper Mill 
in Sweden, one of the largest newsprint mills with 1300 
employees. Sixty employees form the fire crew; 58 of these 
are volunteers who hold other jobs within the company. 
Almost all the buildings are built with stone and have 
concrete foundations. The extensive sprinkling system is 
triggered by smoke detectors. The municipal fire service 
supervises the fire protection of the paper mill. No new 
investments are decided upon before consulting with the 
insurance company of the paper mill and with the 
municipal fire department. 



44 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1901 

GROWING INDUSTRIALIZATION CALLS FOR 

RENEWED EMPHASIS ON FIRE SAFETY 

Anon. 

Fire News (Alberta) 4(3):4-5, September 1980. 

The potentially serious fire hazards at the world-scale 
Esso oil refinery in Edmonton (Canada), and the exten- 
sive precautionary measures used to protect the 600-acre 
complex are described. Fire safety, built into the system, 
is evidenced by: 300 well-spaced hydrants; floating rather 
than the more conventional conical roofs for the huge 
storage tanks; fixed fire-extinguishing pipes running up 
the sides of tanks, which can quickly lay down a layer of 
foam to smother any fire inside; and four-foot-high berms 
surrounding each tank to contain any leakage. Other 
security measures are listed and the water supply system, 
necessary for cooling, is discussed. The training of all 500 
employees as front-line firefighters; the fully-equipped 
conventional fire department staffed by company volun- 
teers (in their off hours); the Mutual Aid agreement 
among numerous industries in the same area, which 
includes the sharing of specialized equipment, knowledge, 
techniques and manpower; all contribute to an enviable 
safety record — the pumpers have not been called out in 
the five years of plant operation. 

1902 

FIRE PROTECTION OF MINERAL OIL INDUS- 
TRY AS A EXAMPLE OF RESEARCH ON ADAP- 
TATION OF TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS TO 
ACTUAL CONDITIONS 
Frick, G. 
VFDB 29(3):108-112, September 1979 (German). 

A co-operative West German research program was 
designed to answer certain technical questions and to 
adapt the existing standards and guidelines on fire 
protection of mineral oil industry to industrial develop- 
ment trends of the last 10 to 15 years. The described 
program anticipates literature search and testing to 
collect technical data on current industrial products and 
to group the products according to their technical com- 
bustion characteristics (B.P., vapor pressure) with assign- 
ment of a standard flammable substance to each group; 
determination of properties and firefighting efficiency of 
extinguishing foaming agents and their classification; 
determination of the effects of type and size of fire object 
(tank, collector) on extinction procedure; and the effect of 
extinction tactics on the procedure. 



Fire Safety 

e. INSTITUTIONAL FACILITIES 

1903 

MODELING EMERGENCY EVACUATION 

FROM GROUP HOMES 

Berlin, G.N.; Dutt, A.; Gupta, S.M. 
Paper presented at the Annual Conference on Fire 
Research at the National Bureau of Standards, 
October 1980, 19 pages, (unpublished). 

The development of a model for the emergency evacua- 
tion of the developmentally disabled from community- 
based group homes, which is complicated by the varying 
capabilities of residents and availability of staff, is 
described. The goal of the study was to estimate the 
required time for evacuating such a facility. Alternative 
egress and rescue policies were evaluated based on the 
buildings studied, together with a simulation model of 
occupant movement. Observations based on the analyses 
included: 1) residents should be located as close to the 
ground level as possible; 2) the quickest rather than the 
shortest routes should be identified, and a rescue policy 
established; 3) exit placement is critical for evacuation of 
residents and for entry of rescue personnel; and 4) more 
staff can mean fewer trips and therefore faster evacua- 
tion time. 

The analysis illustrates the importance of individual 
building assessment where specific rescue and egress 
policies can lead to a greater degree of safety. Floor 
diagrams, showing evacuation routes, tables showing 
egress measures and evacuation results, and the suggest- 
ed model for Building Firesafety/Rescue as it applies to a 
mobile home are included. 

1904 

A SURVEY OF FIELD EXPERIENCE WITH 
SMOKE DETECTORS IN HEALTH CARE FACIL- 
ITIES 

Bukowski, R.W.; Istvan, S.M. 

National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of 
Commerce, Washington, D.C., NBSIR 80-2130, 36 
pages, October 1980. 

Availability: NTIS PB 81-132 276 

A survey of health care facilities in eight states, 
conducted to obtain data on their experience with smoke 
detector systems, is described. Information requested 
included detector manufacturer and model number, num- 
ber of detectors and time in service, detector locations, 
numbers of false and real alarms, and the frequency and 
methods of servicing the detectors. Previous studies and 
current code requirements are reviewed, and details on 
the survey method are provided. Survey results are 
discussed and a summary of findings is given. It was 
found that about 70 percent of the detectors were the 
ionization type, the remaining were photoelectric. Almost 
80 percent of the detectors were installed in corridors, 



45 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Safety 

with about 14 false alarms for each real fire detected. 
These false alarms were sounded primarily by detectors 
located in non-corridor locations such as laundry areas, 
storage areas, and kitchens. 

The average installation age was around five years, 
with over 88 percent of the units being tested at least 
annually, though almost half were never cleaned. An 
Appendix to the report gives a complete statistical 
tabulation of the results from the survey questions. 

1905 

FIRE DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY AGREE ON 

PROGRAM OF COMPLIANCE 

Anon. 

Fire Cfcie/"24(10):38-40, October 1980. 

The details of a fire safety improvement program 
conducted by Northwestern University, at the insistence 
of the Evanston (Illinois) Fire Department, are presented. 
The city and school reached an agreement in 1979 which 
pledged the school to spend $250,000 annually for fire 
safety improvements. Extended legal action concerning 
university building code violations and grandfather 
clauses would have been the alternative to this agree- 
ment. Details are given on: life safety improvements, 
central alarm system, fraternity house improvements, 
fire drills, campus mapping, water mains, and spirit of 
fire department/school cooperation. Five photographs of 
completed improvements are included. 

1906 

FURNITURE FLAMMABILITY STUDY 

Beyrels, J.R. 

Lab Data 10(l):20-23, Winter 1979. 

An investigation into furniture flammability regula- 
tions, conducted by Underwriters' Laboratories and spon- 
sored by the Business and Institutional Furniture Manu- 
facturers' Association, is reviewed. The study centered on 
furniture used primarily in non-residential settings. In- 
formation indicates that the type of furniture being 
considered has a low frequency of fire involvement. The 
basic regulatory approaches to furniture fire safety are 
described, including the control of ignition, control of 
flame spread, and limitation of fuel load contributions. 
Basic fire tests listed, which are used as part of the 
regulatory approach are: smolder ignition, flaming igni- 
tion, flame spread, heat release rates, and heat value 
determinations. Comments obtained from an advisory 
committee convened during the investigation are summa- 
rized, and the findings presented in the final report are 
discussed. It is proposed that ideal furniture flammability 
regulations specify resistance to cigarette ignition, open 
flame ignition, flame spread, and fuel load contributions. 



f. MINING 

[For more complete coverage of the mining 

literature see SMRE Safety in Mines Abstract* 

(UK).] 

1907 

ALL-ANALOGUE FIRE DETECTION SYSTEM 

FOR SA GOLD MINES 

van der Walt, N.T.; Bout, B.J.; Anderson, O.S., et al. 
Fire Protection (South Africa) 7(3):3-10, September 
1980. 

A fire detection system utilizing analog output signals 
from carbon dioxide and combustion particle detectors is 
described. The system, which is currently being used in 
South African gold mines, consists of five main compo- 
nents: a carbon dioxide gas analyzer, an ionization 
combustion particle detector, a telemetering system, a 
signal recording and processing system, and an alarm 
system. Each component is discussed separately. In the 
system, analogue signals generated from the under- 
ground sensors are transmitted to the surface, where they 
are recorded, processed, and monitored. Several advan- 
tages of such a system are noted, including increased 
reliability, lower maintenance costs, and adaptability to 
varying underground atmospheric conditions. 

g. POWER PLANTS 

1908 

FIGHTING FIRE IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS 

Townley, J.P. 

Fire Chief 24(10):S5-S1, October 1980. 

Guidelines are provided for public fire departments 
which may have an agreement to provide firefighting 
assistance to a nuclear power plant fire brigade. United 
States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) require- 
ments, related to manual firefighting and off-site fire 
suppression forces, necessitate the establishment of a 
plant fire brigade, of at least five members, trained in fire 
protection. Three of the five must be operations personnel 
completely familiar with the complexities of the plant 
and its fail-safe shut-down processes. NRC directs the 
utility operating the plant to obtain a written agreement 
with local fire companies which states that they will 
respond to a fire call from the plant if available. It is 
therefore recommended that such fire departments gain 
as much knowledge of the plant and plant fire protection 
as is available. 

Specific suggestions include: developing written proce- 
dures covering response operations, equipment manage- 
ment, and assembly and staging area location; determin- 
ing security rules and procedures for gaining entry to the 
plant; participating in training and drills with the plant 
fire brigades; asking to review the utility's pre-fire 
strategies for areas where manual firefighting would be 



46 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



considered difficult; and familiarizing all personnel with 
the hazards of radiation and the necessary precautions 
that should be taken. 

1909 

FIRE PROTECTION SCHEDULES FOR OPER- 
ATING NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS 

Anon. 

Federal Register 45(211):71569-71570, October 29, 

1980. 

A U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulation 
amendment is announced. The announcement (effective 
October 29, 1980) indicates that the commission is sus- 
pending completion schedules for implementing certain 
fire protection features in operating nuclear power 
plants, pending completion of the commission's ongoing 
comprehensive fire protection rule-making. The sched- 
ules were originally announced in a Notice of Proposed 
Rulemaking (Federal Register 45 FR 36082) entitled "Fire 
Protection Program for Nuclear Plants Operating Prior 
to January 1, 1979." The suspension was deemed neces- 
sary since some plant licensees reported they could not 
meet the implementation deadlines. New schudules will 
take effect upon final rule-making. Information is provid- 
ed on who to contact for further clarification. 

h. PUBLIC FACILITIES 

1910 

INS AND OUTS OF FIRE SAFETY 

Anon. 

Journal of American Insurance 55(4):22-24, Winter 

1979-80. 

Blocked and locked exits, which are a serious threat to 
the lives of people using public places, are discussed. The 
Life Safety Code of the National Fire Protection Associa- 
tion offers guidance on exit safety in different types of 
occupancies such as: educational, health care, businesses, 
industrial, and places of assembly. Code enforcement is 
generally the responsibility of fire inspection bureaus or 
building inspectors. Habits which can lead to repetition of 
the same violations, including rubbish blocking exits, 
improperly lighted exit signs, and locked doors, are 
reviewed. Overcrowding can also cause problems. It will 
require the cooperation of lawmakers, building inspec- 
tors, fire inspectors, building owners and employees to 
insure public fire safety. The NFPA and OSHA current 
regulations for fire exit safety are listed. 



Fire Safety 
i. RESIDENTIAL OCCUPANCIES 



1911 

FIRE STUDIES. 

DWELLINGS 

Murtagh, M. 
Firehouse 5(1 1):26, 27, 



MULTI-FAMILY FRAME 



I, November 1980. 



Details of a fictional foreground situation concerning 
fire in a multi-family frame dwelling, and the manual fire 
control and rescue procedures suggested are given. Build- 
ing conditions and the social situations at the time are 
considered in the determination of appropriate ventila- 
tion, search, size-up, rescue, and fire suppression proce- 
dures. Rescue planning, procedures, and efforts are re- 
viewed in light of fire victim actions and capabilities. 
Because two-thirds of all fire deaths each year occur in 
one- and two-family dwellings, it is emphasized that 
public awareness and firefighter training for operations 
in such dwellings are extremely important in dealing 
with the continuing problem. 

1912 

FIRE SAFETY OF WOOD-BURNING APPLI- 
ANCES, PART 1: STATE OF THE ART REVIEW 
AND FIRE TESTS, VOLUME I 

Peacock, R.D.; Ruiz, E.; Torres-Pereira, R. 
National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of 
Commerce, Washington, D.C., NBSIR 80-2140, 69 
pages, November 1980. 

Availability: NTIS PB 81-145 823 

A series of studies performed by the Center for Fire 
Research, at the National Bureau of Standards, and 
sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, are de- 
scribed. The studies investigated the fire safety of wood- 
burning appliances used for space heating in single- 
family dwellings and similar small-scale applications. A 
review of previous work is first presented, including 
discussions of fire incidents involving wood-burning appli- 
ances, existing installation codes and standards, and 
temperatures measured during operation of the appli- 
ances. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the 
testing program, in which a total of 28 tests were 
performed, including 18 full-scale tests conducted in an 
instrumented test room using five different wood-burning 
appliances. 

These tests were designed to establish typical operating 
conditions, study the thermal effects of various appliance 
designs and installation conditions, and compare mea- 
sured values to theoretical predictions of wall surface 
temperatures. Ten additional tests were performed to 
compare a standardized fuel source with typical oak logs. 
The major conclusions from the tests are summarized and 
recommendations based on the results of the tests are 
presented. 



47 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Safety 



1913 

ACTIVITIES IN WOOD-HEATING SAFETY 

Peacock, R.D. 

Dimensions/NBS 64(10):20-2B, December 1980. 

Preliminary results from a continuing effort by the 
Department of Energy and the NBS Center for Fire 
Research to investigate the fire safety of wood-burning 
appliances, used for space heating in residential and 
other small-scale applications, are summarized. Initial 
work, aimed at reviewing wood-burning fire incidents and 
relevant codes and standards, indicated that the installa- 
tion, operation, and maintenance of wood-burning appli- 
ances were the primary causes of fire, rather than 
product deficiencies. The study also entailed 28 full-scale 
tests using five different wood-burning appliances. Data 
on a variety of operating parameters were recorded and 
analyzed. Test results and conclusions are discussed and 
areas for future research are specified. The studies 
reviewed are reported in detail in NBS publications 
NBSIR 80-2140 and NBSGCR 80-292, among others, 
which are available from the author. 

1914 

LOW COST RESIDENTIAL SPRINKLER SYS- 
TEM — A NEW TECHNOLOGY 

Gray, R.J. 

SPFE Bulletin 80(5):1, 7-8, December 1980. 

The development, production, and sale of low-cost 
home sprinkler systems are discussed. These systems are 
dependent on the following three equally important 
areas: 1) technology; 2) manufacturer liability; and 3) 
economic incentive. The design and related activities of 
the required hardware (1) for residential installation is 
described. The legal arrangements which must be made 
to limit a manufacturer's liability (2) in cases where the 
system was improperly installed or used are reviewed. 
Finally, economic incentives (3) which must be developed 
to encourage the purchase and installation of home 
systems are listed, including: tax deductions; reduced fire 
insurance rates, reduced property taxes, and a reduction 
in the amount of fire insurance required for mortgaged 
homes. 

1915 

FIRE PROBLEM IN MOBILE HOMES SEVERE 

Gee, M. 

The International Fire Chief 46(10):21-23, October 

1980. 

Mobile homes fires, which cause twice as many fatali- 
ties as those in 1- and 2-family homes although incident 
rates are similar, were the subject of a 3-year study by the 
National Data Fire Center of the U.S. Fire Administra- 
tion (USFA), following the adoption in 1976 of the Federal 
Mobile Home Construction and Safety standard drawn up 
by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Develop- 



ment. Known causes of mobile home deaths, which 
parallel the five most common to other residential 
properties, are: smoking, heating, incendiary/suspicious, 
children playing, and cooking. Heating and electrical 
systems cause most mobile home fires, and more victims 
are trapped in mobile homes, with a higher percentage of 
child fatalities than in other residential fires. Although 
most mobile homes studied were built before the HUD 
standard went into effect, data show that the standard 
has cut the fatality rate by 50 pecent in new construction; 
the smoke detector requirement has reduced the fatality 
rate by 50-75 percent; and property damage loss has been 
reduced by an average of $675. 

Smoke detectors can also be instrumental in reducing 
fatalities in earlier construction, since they can easily be 
installed in the older homes. Some modifications to the 
HUD standard proposed by USFA following the study 
are: 1) Class A or B flame-spread for interior wall 
materials; 2) Class A flame-spread for interior ceiling 
materials; 3) a minimum of two smoke detectors for every 
mobile home; 4) installation of smoke detectors well away 
from cooking equipment; and 5) an outside attention- 
attracting device which would signal when a smoke 
detector alarm goes off. Possible applications of the data 
obtained in the study and recommendations for areas of 
consideration in the continuing research programs are 
included. 

1916 

FIELD TEST AND EVALUATION OF RESIDEN- 
TIAL SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

Moore, D.A. 

Fire Journal 74(6):44-47, November 1980. 

Field testing of a prototype residential sprinkler sys- 
tem is described. Since most fire fatalities in the U.S. are 
a result of residential fires, sprinklers were tested in a 
typical family home. The main objective of residential 
sprinklers is to improve the occupant's life safety. Limit- 
ing the fire growth would limit the heat and products of 
combustion to a level low enough to allow the occupant to 
escape safely. Sixty fire tests were performed in a two- 
story family dwelling in Playa Del Ray, California. A new 
sprinkler head, developed to react faster than any pres- 
ently available, was employed. The instrumentation in- 
stalled in the house measured the various products of 
combustion, fire growth, and other important parame- 
ters. Various rooms in the house were tested under 
differing fire conditions with various sprinkler configura- 
tions. The sprinklers were found to be successful in 
maintaining life safety criteria. Based on the tests, 
changes to the NFPA 13D residential sprinklers standard 
were proposed. The potential benefits of residential 
sprinklers are noted as substantial. 



48 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1917 

HOME FIRES: WHY THEY KEEP BURNING 

Anon. 

Journal of American Insurance 56(3):16-19, Fall 

1980. 

Home fires, which kill more people than spectacular 
catastrophies, such as the hotel fire in Las Vegas, and 
which account for approximately 75 percent of the 
civilian fire fatalities each year, are discussed. The most 
vunerable groups, those who are least able to protect 
themselves, are children under five, and elderly persons, 
having fatality rates twice and four times the national 
average, respectively. Sixty percent of fatal fires occur 
between midnight and 8 a.m., often having started in 
other parts of the house, but trapping victims in their 
bedrooms. High alcohol levels found in 50 percent of fire 
victims over the age of 20, and careless smoking, which 
accounts for a high percentage of fires, are cited as major 
causes of fire deaths. Heating equipment is the second 
leading cause of home fires, due more to carelessness than 
faulty design, construction, or installation. Other factors, 
some regional in nature, are also listed. 

Since the U.S. has the worst rate of fire deaths of all 
Western industrialized countries, possibly because other 
countries hold a homeowner responsible for accidentally 
burning down his home, increased awareness is neces- 
sary. Smoke detectors can help, but a family escape plan 
is also important. Steps for developing such a plan are 
given, and estimated statistics for 1979 fire deaths are 
tabulated. 

1918 

FIRE HARDENING OF OLD RESIDENTIAL 
BUILDINGS IN HIGH RISK URBAN COMMUNI- 
TIES 

DeCicco, PR. 

SFPE Technology Report 80-5 Society of Fire Protec- 
tion Engineers, Boston, MA, 13 pages, 1980. 

A study aimed at the reduction of residential fires in 
older urban communities, is reviewed. The effort involved 
outfitting selected wood-frame, multiple dwelling row 
houses with several fire protection devices and comparing 
the fire experience of these homes to control homes over a 
one-year period. The homes selected were located in the 
Bushwick section of Brooklyn, New York. Seventy-five 
"study" houses and 300 control houses were selected. 
Details on the selection process and neighborhood demo- 
graphic data are presented. Each study building was 
outfitted with smoke and fire detectors, stairwell sprin- 
kler systems, and fibrous fire barriers in the attic. During 
the year there were three fires in the 75 study buildings, 
none of which were severe enough to assess the operation 
of the sprinkler systems or fire barriers. The 300 control 
group buildings experienced seven, more severe fires. 
Data collection will continue for the next two years to 



Fire Safety 

determine more qualitatively the value of such fire 
protection installations. 

1919 

FIRE HARDENING OF OLD RESIDENTIAL 
BUILDINGS IN HIGH RISK URBAN COMMUNI- 
TIES: SPRINKLER SYSTEM ASPECTS 

Foehl, J.M. 

SFPE Technology Report 80-6 Society of Fire Protec- 
tion Engineers, Boston, MA, 9 pages, 1980. 

The installation of stairwell sprinkler systems (mini- 
sprinklers) in 75 wood-frame, multiple-dwelling row 
houses in a Brooklyn (New York) neighborhood is dis- 
cussed. The sprinkler systems were installed to improve 
occupant life safety and reduce property damage, as part 
of a study aimed at outfitting selected old homes with a 
fire protection package. Fire experiences of the protected 
homes were then compared to unprotected, control 
homes. Background information on the overall study is 
given and various considerations in system installation 
are listed including: project objectives; installation and 
materials costs; system components and design criteria; 
installation techniques; sprinkler head placement; and 
system operation. Conclusions indicate that the sprinkler 
systems, and the other protective devices installed during 
the study, appear to represent a cost effective, economi- 
cally feasible method of protecting older, urban residen- 
tial buildings. 

j. TRANSPORTATION (Air, Rail, Road, Water) 

1920 

THE CASE AGAINST INERT GAS FOR PRO- 
TECTING CHEMICAL TANKERS 

Bond, J. 

Fire 73(903):184-185, September 1980. 

A summary of a paper read at an Amsterdam Confer- 
ence on Tanker Safety, on the use of inert gas for the 
protection of cargo ships, with an emphasis on petroleum 
tankers, is presented. Four questions are posed for this 
study. What is the explosion hazard? How can the 
explosion hazard be reduced? What is the effect of an 
explosion suppression system? Is the explosion hazard 
sufficiently serious to justify the use of an explosion 
protection system? For evaluation of the explosion haz- 
ard, each process such as loading, passage, discharge, 
ventilation, and washing of a tank, must be considered 
separately and sources of fire initiation must be deter- 
mined. The explosion hazard can be reduced by reducing 
the oxygen available to below the ignition limits of the 
hydrocarbons. The four explosion suppression systems 
available are: inert gas from flue gases, inert gas from oil 
fired equipment, pure nitrogen, and a suppresant system. 
Explosion protection sytems have an effect on quality of 
the product, on safety, and on materials of construction of 



49 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Safety 

tanks. Finally, the seriousness of the hazard must be 
weighed against the hazards arising in other areas of 
operation caused by the fire protection system. 

1921 

PREPLANNING FOR ROCKET FUELS 

Patterson, W.J. 

Fire Command 47(10):20-21, October 1980. 

When the Space Shuttle program gets underway, 
Vandenberg Air Force base will become the main launch 
and recovery site. This will increase the volume of 
shipments of hazardous materials, primarily rocket fuels. 
In preparation for regularly scheduled flights, represen- 
tatives from Santa Barbara County, California, and the 
U.S. Air Force prepared a program to cope with possible 
emergencies arising from the shipments of hazardous 
materials through the area surrounding the base. The 
program's three main components are: prenotification of 
shipment, informational guides on the five most hazard- 
ous materials being shipped, and a training program. 
Each of these are discussed briefly. 

1922 

NEW APPROACH TO IMPROVING THE FIRE 

PROTECTION OF SHIPS 

MacGregor, P. 

Fire 73(905):312-313, November 1980. 

Several new approaches to improving the fire protec- 
tion of ships are proposed. One suggestion is the prepara- 
tion of special training manuals which would provide 
users which a thorough description of a ship's layout, 
construction, built-in fire suppression systems, and other 
pertinent information which could assist firefighters 
unfamiliar with that particular ship. The development of 
an emergency response program for ships that are 
underway is also proposed. This would increase the 
amount of firefighting resources available to battle a fire 
in the early stages. The major effort proposed is the 
establishment of coordinated regional fire-training facili- 
ties that would provide training for all affected parties 
including fishermen, military personnel, offshore oil 
personnel, and local fire brigades. Other approaches 
described include accelerated research and development 
on improved fire suppression systems, improved equip- 
ment availability, and extensive pre-fire planning. 

1923 

TANKER SAFETY ATTITUDES DEPLORED 

Anon. 

Fire 73(904):251-242, October 1980. 

Fire safety on seagoing vessels is discussed in light of 
the increasing number of explosions aboard tanker ships. 
Statistics on shipboard casualties, prepared by the Sal- 
vage Association in London, are summarized. Relevant 



fire safety problems are reviewed, including: improper 
tank maintenance; inadequate inert gas pressures and 
thus excessive hydrocarbon vapors; irregular tank inspec- 
tions; and deterioration of fire protection systems. Recom- 
mendations are made which, if followed, would greatly 
reduce the risk of fires or explosions on tanker ships. The 
main approach described involves maintenance of ade- 
quate inert gas pressures in the vessel's holding tanks. 

1924 

CATALYTIC CONVERTER: FIRESAFE, OR 

FIRE PROBLEM? 

Favro, P.C. 

Fire Journal 74(6):51-55, 85, November 1980. 

Catalytic converters on cars were tested and the real- 
world car fire experience analyzed. It was shown that the 
converters are not a fire hazard. In 1974, California 
passed legislation requiring the converters on cars in 
order to reduce air pollution. Most new cars sold in the 
U.S. now use catalytic converters. The testing, performed 
by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, showed that 
under normal operating conditions, catalyst equipped and 
non-catalyst equipped cars have approximately the same 
external system temperatures, proving catalyst equipped 
cars are not a greater risk. These temperatures were 
feared to be the cause of grass and brush fires. But the 
testing also showed actual contact is generally required to 
start a fire. Analysis of real-world car fires indicated that 
the majority of fires were caused by fuel leaks and only 
0. 1 percent of the total reported were catalytic converter- 
related. To reduce auto-related fires, vehicle owners 
should have their car's defective hoses replaced. 

1925 

INERT GAS SYSTEMS FOR TANKER SAFETY 

Anon. 

Fire International 1980(69):31-32, December 1980. 

The value of inert gas systems for preventing explo- 
sions on ships is reported by the Salvage Association, a 
London-based organization dealing with maritime safety. 
However, explosions can still occur if the inert gas 
systems are not properly used and maintained. When 
purging tanks of hydrocarbon vapors, the purging should 
continue until the level is so low that air can be 
introduced without producing an explosive mixture. If the 
purging is stopped too soon, hydrocarbon deposits may 
continue to emit vapors and the limit may build to an 
explosive atmosphere. Automatic sounding devices should 
be fitted to eliminate dangerous hand-sounding opera- 
tions. Whenever the tank must be opened, the topping-up 
of inert gas is necessary to prevent an explosive vapor-air 
mixture from forming. Finally, adequate staff training is 
required in the care and operation of the gas system and 
proper maintenance procedures. 



50 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 



a. ADMINISTRATION, ORGANIZATION AND 
MANAGEMENT 

1926 

SUB BASE BRINGS FUNDS FROM FEDS, PART 

I 

Schwartz, W.G.; Cashman, J.R. 

Western Fire Journal 32(10):33-36, October 1980. 

The need for volunteer fire serices to identify their 
requirements for environmental impact funding when 
Federal facilities are slated for construction in their area 
is exemplified by the experience of Kitsap County Fire 
District No. 1 in Silverdale, Washington and surrounding 
districts when the Federal government decided to build a 
Trident submarine base in their jurisdiction. The fire 
department received Federal funding of $75,000 to pur- 
chase land, $350,000 to build a new station, $63,000 to refit 
a pumper with a TeleSquirt, $76,000 to purchase a 
pumper, $15,000 to purchase a mini-pumper, $44,000 to 
buy a tanker, $10,000 to buy a tank, and $24,000 to 
purchase a new ambulance. The fire department has 5 
stations, manned by 85 volunteers who cover 85 square 
miles of rural territory. 

1927 

FIRE DISTRICT GETS FEDERAL FUNDING 

WITH NAVY SUB BASE, PART II 

Schwartz, W.G.; Cashman, J.R. 

Western Fire Journal 32(ll):17-20, November 1980. 

The need for volunteer fire services to identify their 
requirements for environmental impact funding when 
Federal facilities are slated for construction in their area 
is exemplified by the funding procedure and benefits 
received by the Kitsap County Fire District No. 1, 
Silverdale, Washington, as a result of the Environmental 
Impact Statement (EIS) completed for the local Trident 
submarine base are discussed. The benefits were received 
through the county commissioners since Federal funds 
cannot be given to rural fire districts directly. $55.5 
million was received by the county, with $2.2 million 
earmarked for area fire services. Details are also given of 
two hazardous materials response vehicles purchased 
with these funds. 



1928 

MANAGING THE VOLUNTEER: A PERSONNEL 

MANAGEMENT GUIDE 

Campbell, C.A. 

The International Fire Chief 46(11):10-12, Novem- 
ber 1980. 

A condensation of "Personnel Management for Volun- 
teer Fire Departments," a publication of the Internation- 
al Association of Fire Chiefs Foundation, is provided. 
Important aspects of managing volunteer personnel are 
reviewed, including selecting the right individuals, appli- 
cant evaluation, orientation, training, and discipline. The 
importance of proper personnel recordkeeping, and the 
provision of benefit programs for the volunteers are also 
covered. In addition, the roles of the membership commit- 
tee and the Fire Chief in personnel management are 
discussed. Information on how to obtain the original, 
more detailed publication is given. 

1929 

PRODUCTIVITY IN THEORY AND PRACTICE: 

THEORY 

Burkell, C.J. 

Fire Chief 24(9):25-27 ', September 1980. 

The general concepts of productivity are defined, 
governmental and nongovernmental productivity charac- 
teristics are differentiated, inputs and outputs of fire 
agencies are identified, and fire agency outputs are 
examined in relation to productivity measurement val- 
ues. Relative to the fire service, the concept of productivi- 
ty is based on the effectiveness of the relationship of 
resources of products and services. Difficulties attributed 
to the productivity measurement processes available to 
fire agencies are discussed. Inputs of the total fire 
protection system include apparatus cost and manpower, 
while outputs cover such visible services as fire suppres- 
sion and control, emergency medical services delivery, 
property management, and public education. Three tech- 
niques for measuring productivity described are: 1) com- 
paring productivity measures among communities; 2) 
comparing productivity measures within a single commu- 
nity over a period of time; and 3) developing optimal 
performance specifications and then measuring current 
performance levels against these optimal specifications. 



51 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Service Organization and Facilities 



L930 

FIRE PROTECTION THROUGH PRIVATE EN- 
TERPRISE 

Anon. 

Journal of American Insurance 56(2):9-12, Summer 

The private fire protection service of Elk Grove Town- 
ship (Illinois), which is located near O'Hare International 
Airport, is discussed. The plan, financed by property taxes 
and operated at a profit, still costs less than a municipal 
fire department. Experienced firefighters are paid as the 
main firefighting force, supplemented by volunteers 
available on an on-call basis. Money to start the service 
was supplied by a local banker. Equipment is housed in a 
former factory with crew's quarters in air-conditioned 
trailers, connected by radio to other fire and emergency 
services in the surrounding areas. Health insurance, 
workmen's compensation and a pension plan are offered, 
and in addition, insurance covers automobiles and fire 
vehicles; paramedic liability; general liability; umbrella 
liability for excessive judgments; inland marine; and the 
crew's trailers. Only three such private departments exist 
in the United States at this time, and the owner hopes to 
expand to other areas. Information on where to write for 
more details is provided. 

1931 

THE MUNICIPAL FIRE DEPARTMENT: A BU- 
REAUCRATIC STRUCTURE 

Dawson, T.W. 

Fire C/ue/" 24(10): 50-52, October 1980. 

The operation of a fire department as a bureaucracy is 
presented. The six principles of a bureaucratic structure 
regarding fixed and official jurisdictional areas; a strict 
hierarchical system of authority; administration based on 
written documents; thorough and expert training; full- 
time operations; and general management rules are 
presented and related to the municipal fire department. 
Several criticisms of bureaucracy are listed and discussed. 
The criticisms focus primarily on the fact that in struc- 
tured organizations, personal, individual concerns tend to 
be inadequately addressed in favor of organizational 
needs. Nonetheless, the fire chief is said to benefit from a 
strictly-followed bureaucracy, while deviation from the 
ideal bureaucratic model can cause serious problems. It is 
suggested that the best man for the position of fire chief is 
a person who has both technical and management exper- 
tise. 



1932 

PRODUCTIVITY IN THEORY AND PRACTICE: 

PRACTICE 

Rule, C.H. 

Fire Chief 24(9):2$-'S0, September 1980. 

The practical aspects of fire service productivity are 
discussed. As noted, the decreasing availability of tax 
revenues for the provision of basic services is accompa- 
nied by increasing demand for maximum productivity 
from the work force. Measurement of productivity in the 
fire service has long been a controversial and subjective 
topic. Many of the attempts to define and measure 
productivity have been individual viewpoints of random 
criteria. City managers and fire service managers can 
implement productivity programs with a minimum of 
risk by utilizing objective real-world planning. Several 
considerations are necessary in this planning, such as: 1) 
setting goals, 2) setting objectives, 3) starting small, 4) 
dealing with adversaries, 5) using management by objec- 
tives, 6) using the control/analysis factors, and 7) institut- 
ing continual review. 

There are many job-related areas in the fire service 
where productivity may be improved. A sample of these 
areas is provided, including emergency medical services, 
training, fire prevention activities, physical fitness pro- 
grams, maintenance activities, built-in fire protection, 
manpower squads, regionalization, condition of employ- 
ment contracts, and participative management activities. 

1933 

COUNTY GOVERNMENT AND THE VOLUN- 
TEER FIRE SERVICE 

Baltz, D. 

Fire Chief 24(9)A0, 42, September 1980. 

The involvement of county governments in the support 
of local volunteer fire departments is discussed in terms 
of liability factors funding limitations, and statutory 
restrictions. It is suggested that the volunteer's value to 
the county in providing a valuable and necessary service 
warrants the allocation of significant funding in support 
of the fire departments. However, there are limitations to 
this support, including: 1) lack of funds due to the 
decreasing available of tax revenues; 2) statutory limita- 
tions where incorporated cities and towns may be prohi- 
bited from accepting assistance from counties or where 
counties may not be able to support services of incorporat- 
ed areas; 3) fire district autonomy where political factors 
may hamper county-level support of local fire depart- 
ments; and 4) legal liability associated with the support of 
fire service functions. As noted, the key to gaining county 
support for local volunteer fire departments lies in 
comprehensive master planning at the county level for 
the provision and maintenance of emergency services. 
This requires an effective working relationship between 
the local fire services and the county government. 



52 






FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Service Organization and Facilities 



1934 

PARIS FIRE BRIGADE — PAST AND PRESENT 

Anon. 

Fire International 1980(69):39-43, December 1980. 

The history and development of the Paris (France) fire 
brigade is described. The brigade was formed from a 
military corp by an imperial decree of Napoleon as a 
result of a fire in the Austrian Embassy which killed 10 
people in July, 1810. The brigade's primary responsibility 
is responding to emergency fire calls, but its activities 
extend to rescuing people and animals in distress, and fire 
prevention. The brigade, in addition to protecting the 
Paris region, maintains full-time units in Lacq Artix, Test 
Center of the Landes, and at Korou in Guyane (French 
Guiana). The brigade also trains and operates Civil 
Defense units. The total turnout area is divided into 78 
sectors, 24 in Paris and 54 in outlying areas. Fire cover is 
supplemented by two fire boat stations on the river. 
Brigade members, who are single and who have less than 
three years service, are allowed three weekends off every 
two months. Married personnel living on station are 
required to work a 100-hour week. There are now 6,060 
members of the fire brigade providing fire cover for 6 
million people in a 300 square meter area. Of the 156,735 
operations conducted by the brigade in 1979, 15,362 were 
fires. 

b. EDUCATION AND TRAINING 

1935 

BRUSH WORK IS HOT STUFF FOR AIR FORCE 

HOT SHOTS 

Anon. 

Western Fire Journal 32(9):39-41, September 1980. 

The training program for the Vandenberg Air Force 
Base (California) "Hot Shot" crew is described. Vanden- 
berg has the only "Hot Shot" crew in the Air Force, 
because other Air Force bases do not face similar wild- 
land problems. The 19 crew members annually receive 
more than 100 hours of extensive technical and physical 
skill conditioning for wildland fire control from skilled 
members of the Santa Barbara Country Fire Department. 
The 1980 classroom curriculum consisted of fireline 
safety, fire fatality case studies, fuel types, fire weather, 
fire behavior forecasting, backfire and burnout proce- 
dures, handtool use and safety, air attack, helicopter use, 
engine support and wildland fire tactics. An integral part 
of the training program is a daily two mile "par" course 
with 20 exercise stations. 



1936 

MONTROSE CENTER KEEPS ON GROWING 

Anderson, N. 

Fire 73(906):358-359, December 1980. 

A detailed description is presented of the Offshore Fire 
Training Center at Montrose, Scotland, which opened in 
1978 and has since increased rapidly in size. The center is 
financed by a consortium of about 12 oil companies and is 
operated by the Petroleum Industry Training Board. 
Training is provided in firefighting breathing apparatus 
(BA) use, and fire safety procedures. Basic four-day 
courses, refresher courses, advanced and specialist train- 
ing (helicopter crash rescue, LPG/gas, BA maintenance, 
advanced BA course) are available. Descriptions of course 
content and center staff are accompanied by three 
photographs of center facilities. 

1937 

DOES FIRE SERVICE CARE ABOUT FIRE- 
FIGHTER SAFETY? 

Jarboe, T. 

Minnesota Fire Chief 17(2):7, 45, November-Decem- 
ber 1980. 

A discussion is presented on whether the fire service 
has placed sufficient attention on firefighter safety. It is 
stated that members of the fire service must adhere to 
safety measures designed to protect their lives, particu- 
larly since firefighting is the most hazardous occupation 
in the United States. Too often firefighters become 
complacent and careless and do not follow such safety 
measures as manually controlling elevators during a 
high-rise fire. Thus more emphasis in training firefight- 
ers in topics relating to firefightere safety is stressed. 
Eighteen recommendations, which, if followed, could help 
reduce firefighter casualties are listed. These safety 
recommendations stress such actions as using breathing 
apparatus, defensive driving techniques and wearing full 
protective clothing. 

1938 

SIMULATION: A REALISTIC APPROACH TO 

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TRAINING 

Estepp, M.H. 

The International Fire Chief 46(10):10-13, October 

1980. 

To provide realistic training in emergency response 
procedures, Prince George's County, Maryland, conducted 
a full-scale simulation of a train derailment involving 
hazardous materials. The enacted derailment involved a 
simulated release of liquid propane and cholorine gas. 
The simulation was unique in that planners found no 
outlines or role models to follow for such a large-scale 
simulation. During the planning stages, a steering com- 
mittee was formed consisting of staff members from Fire 



53 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Service Organization and Facilities 



Suppression/Rescue, Training, Logistics, Apparatus 
Maintenance, Communications, Public Information and 
Fire Prevention, and Volunteers. Representatives from 
various county agencies and outside organizations were 
also included. Five major objectives of the simulation 
were to: 1) provide a realistic training exercise; 2) 
determine the capabilities of the fire department to 
handle an incident; 3) make public and elected officials 
aware of hazardous materials problems; 4) evaluate the 
exercise; and 4) document it for future planning and 
training. The necessary steps to achieve these objective 
are listed. The time spent in planning and preparation 
paid off in a successful simulation. 

1939 

LEADERSHIP TRAINING: THE FIRE SERVICE 

WAY 

Horan, K. 

Fire Engineers Journal 40(120):27-31, December 

1980. 

The individual who joins the fire service must be a 
team member but also have the potential for leadership. 
Having an experienced officer interview likely condidates 
can aid in selecting the best people. Approximately 3000 
pounds are spent on training before the candidate goes to 
his first call, so it is important to choose the most suitable 
applicants. It would seem preferable to have the 12-week 
training course for recruits at a residential training 
school, since in this environment, encouragement is 
available during non-formal training hours, similiar to 
what is encountered at fire stations. Monitoring of the 
training should be conducted regularly. The probation 
period should gradually allow recruits to change from 
following to leading. A list of the training requirements 
needed is given. Topics for leadership sessions and train- 
ing exercises are listed for junior officers who must be 
trained to properly develop leadership skills necessary for 
the job. Also discussed are: cessation of accelerated 
promotion courses in the fire service; two-tier entry; 
leadership vs. officership; the value of simulation for 
training; and the closure of the Fire Service Staff College. 

1940 

BETTER TRAINING RESULTS IN SHORTER 
ACTION TIMES. TIME IS MORE IMPORTANT 
THAN TRAINING 

Anon. 

Brandforsvar 17(6/7):30-31, June 1980 (Swedish). 

Possible means to substantially reduce the reaction 
time of rescue personnel, are reviewed. For example, 
there should be more than one ambulance available at 
ambulance stations to ensure that an ambulance is 
available when needed. Fire stations should be equipped 
with rescue vehicles carrying medical equipment and 
other rescue equipment for various situations. To make 
better use of the capacity already available at the fire 



stations, the staff should undergo some basic training in 
the primary care of sick or injured persons. Such first aid 
training would include the freeing of air passages and 
treatment to support breathing as well as learning how to 
stop extensive external bleeding, and measures to prevent 
shock. With effective treatment, the time that has to be 
spent in a hospital can be reduced. Considering both 
experience and economic aspects, the action time should 
normally not exceed the following values: 10 minutes for 
areas with apartment buildings taller than four stories, 
shopping centers, department stores, office buildings, and 
large industries; 20 minutes for areas with smaller 
industries, smaller apartment buildings, row houses, and 
single-home developments; and 30 minutes for areas 
having vacation homes, separate buildings, and small 
villages. 

1941 

MANUAL FULFILLS LOCAL TRAINING NEEDS 

Thomson, R.R. 

Fire Engineering 133(12):45-46, December 1980. 

A manual for the training of fire service volunteers, 
prepared by the Chief of the all-volunteer fire department 
of Upper St. Clair (Pennsylvania), is described. Problems 
typical of volunteer departments are outlined, and the 
development of the manual is discussed, including sources 
consulted for some of the information included. The 
contents of the manual, with comments, are presented in 
table form. Areas covered include: 1) an alphabetized 
street list and set of local area maps; 2) fire pre-plans of 
all schools, churches and major buildings in the township; 
3) company rules, operations, procedures, requirements, 
and records; 4) trucks - details of design, operation and 
maintenance; 5) equipment - details of design, operation 
and maintenance; 6) out-of-town maps and mutual aid 
assignments; 7) glossary of terms; and 8) by-laws of the 
department. The basic goal of the manual was to give 
each member the opportunity to learn most of what the 
chief knew, enabling a man to become an expert. In an all 
volunteer department this can be important, since even a 
new man might be "chief during an emergency, at least 
in its initial stages. 

c. FACILITIES 

1942 

ARIZONA'S SOLAR F.D. 

Bernstein, M. 

Western Fire Journal 32(9):25-26, September 1980. 

Station 5 in Mesa, Arizona has all its hot water needs 
provided for by the installation of a solar-heated hot 
water system. Capt. Mason Davis is pushing for the 
installation of a solar unit that would also provide all the 
heating and cooling for the station. The hot water unit is 
situated on the ground due to weight and an effort to 
maintain the attractive roof line. The space inside the 



54 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



unit is used for storage. The hot water unit saves the city 
$50 a month in electric bills, will pay for itself in four 
years and requires almost no maintenance. With modifi- 
cations, areas of the country not receiving as much 
sunshine can still profit by using solar energy. 

1943 

LONDON'S VIEWS ON FIRE STATION DESIGN 

Foehl, J.M. 

Fire Engineers Journal 40(120):21-23, December 

1980. 

Planning for new fire stations in London (England), 
which has already gone through the individually-built 
stage and the one standard design stage, is discussed by 
two representatives of the London Fire Brigade and a 
member of the Greater London Council's Dept. of Archi- 
tecture and Civic Design. The planning concept is now 
breaking down fire station design into its component 
parts which the architect can then use to adapt his design 
to a particular set of area needs. Some of the issues on 
which fire brigades will have to be flexible are seen as: is 
the need for accomodations for women realistic; is the 
residential system (beds, recreation facilities) still needed; 
what size and type of equipment will be needed; what 
provision should be made for the increased use of breath- 
ing apparatus equipment and decontamination proce- 
dures; and how are reserve vehicles to be housed. Since it 
is impossible to predict all eventualities, it is suggested 
that stations be built, forecasting future needs as well as 
possible, using a flexible design that can be adapted. The 
stages of building a station and the agencies involved are 
also described. In addition, a discussion covering ques- 
tions and answers about the new design for London's drill 
towers is reviewed. Finally, specific areas of concern 
brought up by individuals during the discussion period 
are covered. 

d. FIRE APPARATUS 

1944 

GUIDE FOR PREPARING FIRE PUMPER APPA- 
RATUS SPECIFICATIONS. PART I — EXECU- 
TIVE SUMMARY 

Anon. 

National Fire Data Center, U.S. Fire Administra- 
tion, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 
Washington, D.C., FA-29-1, 22 pages, October 1980. 

Availability: GPO 064-000-00011-0 

The summary describes a five-part guide developed to 
help local fire departments determine and specify pump- 
er apparatus road and firefighting performance require- 
ments for use in bid specifications. Problems encountered 
in writing bid specifications are reviewed and an overview 
of the remaining four parts is presented. The difference 
between performance and design specification is dis- 



Fire Service Organization and Facilities 

cussed and a model ten-step procurement process is 
explained. Recommendations on how to properly use the 
guide are also given. Appendices provide a hypothetical 
procurement schedule, suggested team members, and a 
list of National Advisory Committee members and Field 
Test communities. 

1945 

GUIDE FOR PREPARING FIRE PUMPER APPA- 
RATUS SPECIFICATIONS. PART II — DETER- 
MINING PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS 

Anon. 

National Fire Data Center, U.S. Fire Administra- 
tion, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 
Washington, D.C., FA-29-2, 181 pages, December 
1980. 

Availability: GPO 064-000-00012-8 

This five-part guide was developed to help local fire 
departments determine and prepare apparatus perfor- 
mance specifications for use in equipment procurements. 
Part II presents a step-by-step procedure useful in ascer- 
taining pumper performance requirements appropriate 
for the fire risks, road conditions and budget constraints 
of the department's community. Sample worksheets and 
completion instructions are provided. 

1946 

GUIDE FOR PREPARING FIRE PUMPER APPA- 
RATUS SPECIFICATIONS. PART III — PRE- 
PARING THE BID 

Anon. 

National Fire Data Center, U.S. Fire Administra- 
tion, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 
Washington, D.C., FA-29-3, 335 pages, December 

1980. 

Availability: GPO 064-000-00013-6 

This five-part guide was developed to help local fire 
departments determine and prepare pumper apparatus 
performance specifications for use in equipment procure- 
ments. Part III is a step-by-step workbook for use in 
preparing the actual specification provided in Part IV. 
Detailed instructions for completing the bid specifications 
for the apparatus and its components are given and 
specific specification wording is suggested. Legal, contrac- 
tual and procurement requirements as well as govern- 
ment regulations and industry standards are considered. 
As noted, the workbook is designed to provide guidance to 
the user, thus the actual specification must be custom- 
tailored to meet the needs of the individual community. 



55 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Service Organization and Facilities 

1947 

GUIDE FOR PREPARING FIRE PUMPER APPA- 
RATUS SPECIFICATIONS. PART IV — A SUG- 
GESTED SPECIFICATION FORMAT 

Anon. 

National Fire Data Center, U.S. Fire Administra- 
tion, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 
Washington, D.C., FA-29-4, 113 pages, December 
1980. 

Availability: GPO 064-000-00014-4 

This five-part guide was developed to help local fire 
departments determine and prepare pumper apparatus 
performance specifications for use in equipment procure- 
ments. Part IV provides a suggested specification format 
to be used in conjunction with the instruction workbook 
presented in Part III of the guide. Suggested specification 
wording; general technical requirements; pumping sys- 
tem requirements; and vehicle, chassis and equipment 
specifications are addressed. Apparatus acceptance test 
methods are explained, and information expected in a 
contractor's bid is described. As indicated, the format is 
flexible but must be custom-tailored to meet the specific 
needs of the individual community. 

1948 

GUIDE FOR PREPARING FIRE PUMPER APPA- 
RATUS SPECIFICATIONS. PART V — SUPPLE- 
MENTARY MATERIAL 

Anon. 

National Fire Data Center, U.S. Fire Administra- 
tion, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 
Washington, D.C., FA-29-5, 143 pages, December 
1980. 

Availability: GPO 064-000-00015-2 

This five-part guide was developed to help local fire 
departments determine and prepare pumper perfor- 
mance specifications for use in equipment procurements. 
Part V presents five appendices of supplemental informa- 
tion relevant to the use of Parts II to IV of the guide. A 
glossary of specification and apparatus terminology is 
provided in Appendix A and road performance test 
procedures are described in Appendix B. Appendix C 
contains unit weight data, shown in tabular form, for 
accessory equipment carried on fire pumpers. Drivewheel 
power tables, in the form of computer printouts, are given 
in Appendix D; important elements of foreground hydrau- 
lics, including detailed procedures to determine pump 
flow/pressure requirements, are covered in Appendix E. 



e. INFORMATION SYSTEMS 

1949 

WHAT IS THE RURAL FIRE PROBLEM? 

Hatcher, R.G. 

Fire Management Notes 41(3):9-10, Summer 1980. 

The problem of accurate fire data for wildland fires in 
rural areas, as typified by rural fire departments in Iowa, 
is discussed. Since the late 1950s, a voluntary reporting 
program has been in effect in Iowa, but a 1975 survey 
revealed that less than 10 percent of all wildfires were 
being reported. Currently, a study in being completed by 
the Iowa Forestry Department in conjunction with the 
Fire Service Extension at Iowa State University, which 
will hopefully give insight into why fire departments, 
particularly in rural areas, are not reporting wildfires. 
Part of the study has been the development of a simple 
fire department activity log, which would be used state- 
wide to encourage better record keeping; some small 
departments had kept poor records, some none at all. A 
monthly report from this record, sent to the Fire Service 
Extension Office and entered on a computer, would 
supply much needed information for developing fire 
prevention activities and budgets. In addition, an instant 
reporting service, with an add-on to include wildfire 
information, was developed which can be plugged into a 
national fire reporting service. It is concluded that if Iowa 
is going to get a realistic overview of the rural fire 
problem, it will have to develop a fire reporting system 
that the fire service will accept; and which can be utilized 
nationally as well as locally to completely identify the 
rural wildfire problem. 

f. INSPECTION 

[No entries] 

g. INVESTIGATION AND REPORTING 

1950 

REPORTING— THE DILEMMA OF RURAL FIRE 

PROTECTION 

Harrison, A. 

Fire Management Notes 41(3):11-12, Summer 1980. 

A brief discussion is presented on the inadequacy of fire 
reports prepared by rural fire departments. Three poten- 
tial means for supplying badly needed rural fire data are 
reviewed: a one-page easily prepared Supplement to the 
Field Incident Report (901F); a Research Triangle Insti- 
tute Statistical Survey of Rural Fire Departments; and 
the Iowa Fire Log, described in a separate article. The 
data obtained through these efforts should assist wildland 
fire protection agencies in developing effective prevention 
programs. 



56 






FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Service Organization and Facilities 



1951 

USING PHOTOGRAPHY AS AN INVESTIGA- 
TIVE AID 

Cardoza, J.T. 

The Fire and Arson Investigator 31(2):57-59, Octo- 
ber-December 1980. 

Information is presented on photographic techniques 
applicable to fire investigations. The need for thorough 
coverage, admissable photographic evidence, and atten- 
tion to detail is stressed. A discussion of important 
considerations such as lab processing, film, depth of field, 
shutter speed, contrast, lighting, bracketing, and their 
interrelationships is included. A bibliography listing six 
references is provided. 

h. PERSONAL EQUIPMENT 

1952 

APPLICATION OF AIRPRESSURE RESPIRA- 
TORS WITH POSITIVE PRESSURE (OV- 
ERPRESSURE) IN COMPARISON WITH NOR- 
MAL PRESSURE DEVICES 
Warnke, E. 
VFDB 29(3):83-88, September 1980 (German). 

The principle of operation of a normal airpressure 
respirator in conjunction with a flush-cleaning gas mask 
in which negative pressure is created during inhalation, 
is described. Advantages and defects of this system are 
discussed comparatively with the circulation (closed cy- 
cle) device, or valveless gas mask system. The latter 
system is shown to be more advantageous than the former 
with respect to leakage effects. Leakage with the airpres- 
sure respirator system can be minimized by using the new 
positive pressure system with the flush-cleaning gas 
mask. Operation of this system is described. Comparative 
leakage tests were carried out with different respirator 
systems and gas masks. Test results show that defects of 
flush-cleaning masks can be eliminated with the use of an 
overpressure air respirator. The protection factor (recip- 
rocal of leakage) is shown to be 10 2 -10 3 times higher for a 
mask with an inner chamber in which cycling respiration 
occurs than for a flush-cleaning mask. 

1953 

REMOVABLE COOLING HATBAND APPARA- 
TUS 

Mackenroth, J.R.; Bode, H.B. 

U.S. Patent No. 1237,558, U.S.C1. 2/181, 2/181.4, 2/7 
(Int. CI. A42C 5/02), Appl. December 20, 1978, Disci. 
December 9, 1980, Assignees: Inventors. 

A cooling apparatus designed for attachment to a 
hardhat, helmet, or other types of headgear is discussed. 
The cooling device consists of a liquid-retaining pad 
connected to a liquid (usually water) supply vessel. Liquid 



travels from the supply vessel to the retaining pad, which 
is positioned on the wearer's forehead, through a wick by 
capillary action, thus producing a cooling effect on the 
wearer. Such a device would provide relief from the 
intense heat experienced during fireground operations. 
Background information is presented and the device's 
construction is detailed. 

1954 

FIRE TESTS ON CLOSED-CIRCUIT OXYGEN 

BREATHING APPARATUS 

Held, B.J.; Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G. et al. 
The International Fire Chief 46(11):16-19, Novem- 
ber 1980. 

Closed-circuit oxygen breathing apparatus were tested 
at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 
simulated flashback conditions to determine if a poor 
fitting facepiece or inadvertent oxygen leaks impose an 
increased health hazard to the wearer. This type of 
breathing apparatus is the only available one rated for 
use longer than 30 minutes. The test conditions approxi- 
mated the most severe a firefighter could survive. T«t 
results indicated that when properly used, closed-circuit 
apparatus can be considered safe for firefighters. Safety 
recommendations suggest that exposed hair be kept to a 
minimum, each firefighter be fitted with a facepiece to 
ensure a tight seal (or forbidden to use it if a tight seal 
cannot be obtained) and easily ignited component parts 
should be replaced or covered with non-flammable mate- 
rials. 

1955 

FACIAL HAIR AND BREATHING PROTECTION 

Held, B.J. 

The International Fire C/u'e/"46(12):25-28, December 

1980. 

The problem of facial hair (beards, moustaches, and 
sideburns), of persons who use self-contained breathing 
apparatus (SCBA) is discussed. The leakage caused by 
hair extending beyond the facepiece, allowing smoke and 
lethal gases, vapors, and small particles to enter, can vary 
with the type of individual hair, its length, and its 
volume. Because the question of how much hair is 
dangerous is almost impossible to answer, most rules and 
regulations prohibit any facial hair in the facepiece 
sealing area. This has elicited complaints of violation of 
civil and personal rights from some bearded firefighters. 
However, 35 leakage tests, using negative pressure in the 
facepiece (equivalent to demand-type SCBA) and salt 
particles, showed leakage rates of about 16 percent in 
bearded subjects; and even higher leakage rates could be 
expected from a gas or vapor. Also, using positive-pres- 
sure respirators is not the answer, since the beard allows 
air to leak out, reducing length of time the air cyclinder 
can supply air; a person can "over-breathe" his air 



57 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Service Organization and Facilities 

supply; or the beard can interfere with the exhaust valve 
operation. 

ANSI. NIOSH, and OSHA standards for "respiratory 
protection" are reviewed, all of which require that the 
wearer have no facial hair restricting the seal of the 
facepiece. It is concluded that although this may be an 
emotional issue for some, common sense about health 
protection dicates conformity with such standards. 

i. PERSONNEL AFFAIRS 

1956 

A LABOR RELATIONS PRIMER. PART I: ARBI- 
TRATION. A PRIVATE JUDICIAL SYSTEM 

Dawson, T.W. 

The International Fire Chief 46(9):52-54, September 

1980. 

The basic concepts and different types of arbitration as 
they pertain to the fire service are presented in this first 
part of a three-part series. Arbitration is defined as an 
agreement in advance, either voluntary or compulsory, 
allowing a dispute between two parties to be settled by a 
third party. It is used as a substitute for court action in 
the settlement of disputes between businesspersons. It is 
also one of the oldest known methods of settling disputes 
between people. The arbitrator is usually an attorney, or 
other professional, familiar with labor law and with the 
industry involved. The steps involved in arbitration 
include: submission, which reduces the disagreement to a 
concise statement of the issue; the hearing; the presenta- 
tion of evidence; and the award, made by the arbitrator, 
based on the merits of the case. Decisions of the Supreme 
Court affecting arbitration are also presented. Types of 
arbitration discussed are: voluntary, compulsory, binding, 
grievance, final, expedited, and tripartite. If conciliation, 
mediation, and fact-finding fail to resolve a dispute, it is 
felt that arbitration, the "private judicial system," is a 
useful tool essential in our society. 

1957 

A LABOR RELATIONS PRIMER. PART II: ARBI- 
TRATION IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR 

Dawson, T.W. 

The International Fire Chief 46(10):18-20, October 

1980. 

Public sector arbitration of labor disputes, as it differs 
from private sector arbitration, is discussed in this second 
part of a three-part series. The rights and interests of 
public employees, as with those in the private sector, can 
be a source of conflict requiring procedures of resolution. 
Federal workers were granted arbitration in 1972 by 
executive order; however, state and municipal workers 
must be governed by state authorization. Some states are 
now covered; other state laws are being contested; and 
some states still do not have arbitration agreements. 



Problems unique to the public sector, including the 
delegation of authority to an outside arbitrator (who is 
generally not a public employee); the public interest, as 
with fire and police services; the illegality of strikes by 
public employees; and the monopolistic nature of essen- 
tial government services create difficulties in transfer- 
ring private sector arbitration models to the public sector. 
Arbitration in the public sector is still evolving and it is 
felt that state legislation and court decisions will deter- 
mine its extent and use in the years ahead. 

1958 

A LABOR RELATIONS PRIMER. PART III: 

PUBLIC FIRE DEPARTMENT STRIKES 

Dawson, T.W. 

The International Fire Chief 46(11):13-15, Novem- 
ber 1980. 

The central questions involved in whether firefighters 
should be allowed to strike, or if compulsory arbitration is 
a viable alternative to strikes in the public sector, are 
discussed in the last of a three-part series on arbitration. 
General causes of strikes are listed as uncertainty, 
expectations, bargaining power, and psychological or 
sociological factors. Arguments against public sector 
strikes assume that: 1) market restraints are weak in the 
public sector, largely because the services are essential; 2) 
the public puts pressure on local government officials to 
arrive at a quick settlement; 3) other pressure groups 
have no weapons comparable to a strike; and 4) the strike 
imposes a high cost since the political process is distorted. 
Arguments for and against strikes vs arbitration in the 
public sector are presented. One of the main arguments 
against strikes is that disruption of public service creates 
undue pressure by the public on local government to 
settle quickly. Compulsory arbitration, however, in areas 
of essential services, creates the problem of the role of the 
arbitrator who is not an elected official, yet makes a 
critical decision affecting government operations. 

In conclusion, the author states that public employees 
must have rights as workers in our society, and that their 
rights must be protected by the establishment of pro- 
grams which do not include the strike or compulsory 
arbitration. 

1959 

PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING— PRO AND CON 

Canavan, J. 

Fire Command 47(ll):25-27, November 1980. 

Psychological testing methods being utilized by some 
fire departments to weed out potentially unsuitable 
applicants are discussed. A program developed by Dr. 
Russell Boxley for the Boston Police Department is 
detailed, including the types of background investigations 
and tests involved. Adopted by the Boston Fire Depart- 
ment two years ago, the program is felt to have justified 
the additional expense involved. In addition, charges of 



58 






FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 

Fire Service Organization and Facilities 



discrimination, invasion of privacy, and union busting, 
which have created problems in the adoption of such 
psychological testing methods in some areas, are re- 
viewed. 

1960 

REPORT FORM SEEKS ACCIDENT CAUSE 

•Firenze, R.J.; Baker, R.D. 

Fire Engineering 133(10):52-53, October 1980. 

A new report form which attempts to establish the 
cause of firefighter accidents, rather than how many 
occur, how much they cost, or who was at fault, is 
presented. The form was developed after four years of 
research by RJF Associates, followed by three years of 
field testing. This is a three-page objective record of 
accident events providing information on: activities and 
operations at the accident site; information about tools 
Siiid equipment involved; and accident scene environmen- 
tal and situational conditions. Indianapolis, Cincinnati, 
and Miami now use the form. An address is provided for 
obtaining more information about the form from RJF 
Associates, which can be fully operational within 30 days 
after a department receives permission to use it. 

4961 

VOLUNTEERS ARE CAPABLE OF ADDING 

PREVENTION TO SUPPRESSION EFFORTS 

Granite-, J. 

Fire Engineering 133(7):62-69, September 1980. 

Increasing the role of volunteer firefighters in compre- 
hensive fire prevention programs is discussed. Volunteer 
personnel can contribute in all areas of such programs 
including: development and enforcement of appropriate 
building safety codes; thorough investigation and prose- 
v ation of arson cases; fire prevention and control; master 
planning; and public education. For example, volunteers 
can perform safety inspections and expand their involve- 
ment in public education campaigns. They can also assist 
in arson investigations, provided they receive the special 
training required. Recommended volunteer efforts in 
each of these activities are described and two successful, 
*epresentative local programs are reviewed. Information 
on the organization and activities of volunteers in these 
•programs is provided. 

1962 

HOTLINE: A YEAR IN REVIEW. COMMON 

PROBLEMS, UNCOMMON SOLUTIONS 

Sere, E. 

Firehouse 5(ll):78-82, November 1980. 

The Hotline series, started in September 1979, is 
intended to provide a forum for line firefighters, and 
{oster a dialogue between management and line person- 
nel. After continuing for a year it's been found that from 
Jcoast to coast, firefighters are facing similiar problems. 



The review shows that manpower has decreased while 
fires have increased, along with firefighter injuries and 
fatalities. Morale is low due to problems in administering 
affirmative action programs, and promotion policies are 
unclear and somewhat arbitrary with little or no credit 
being given for college-related degrees. Pay is another 
area of concern as salaries offered by city administrators 
are often below those received by other city employees. 
Firefighters also feel that the general public's views and 
understanding of firefighter's work must be changed to 
help them comprehend the difficulties firefighters must 
face. Also noted is a communications gap in the working 
relationship of those at the top and firefighters on the 



1963 

WOMEN FIREFIGHTERS SPEAK 

Floren, T.M. 

Fire Command 47(12):22-24, December 1980. 

Information on women firefighters, because of the 
rapid acceleration in their hiring, becomes quickly out- 
dated. In this report, results of part one of a survey of 59 
women firefighters, conducted between January and 
June 1980, are presented. Statistics are given for: number 
of women firefighters; length of service; career plans; 
background; prior training; education; hiring procedures; 
management attitudes; discrimination; restrictions; and 
separate facilities. The controversy over affirmative ac- 
tion programs involving women firefighters is reviewed. 
The second part of the survey will cover strength and 
motivation. 

1964 

FITNESS PROGRAM MADE MANDATORY 

Bahrke, M.S.; McSwain, J.A.; O'Connor, J.S. 
Fire Command 47(12):14-15, December 1980. 

During 1979, complete physical exams were conducted 
on all Lawrence, Kansas, firefighters and voluntary 
exercise prescriptions were provided for all participants. 
Follow-up testing in the following year showed that the 
changes that occurred were less than dramatic or desir- 
able. As a result, the Lawrence Fire Department estab- 
lished a mandatory fitness program for all personnel 
during February 1980. Further evaluation is planned for 
January 1981. Details of the testing procedures and a 
table comparing the 1979 and 1980 physical fitness test 
results are included. 

1965 

CHICAGO INSPECTS ITS INSPECTORS 

Alletto, W.C. 

Fire Command 47(9):43,45, September 1980. 

The problem of corruption of elected or appointed 
officials is outlined, and steps taken by the Chicago Fire 
Department to keep its own house in order are discussed. 



59 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Service Organization and Facilities 

The components of corruption are identified as opportuni- 
ty, incentive, risk, and personal honesty. The depart- 
ment's Bureau of Fire Prevention has implemented a 
program to monitor all functions of the inspection opera- 
tion, since corruption is more likely to occur where 
opportunities exist and incentives outweigh the risks 
involved. The inspection force is composed of uniformed 
firefighters (mostly lieutenants), who must complete a 
form after each inspection, which becomes part of a 
computerized record. During regular reviews of random 
or selected forms, any doubt of the conduct or integrity of 
an inspector can be immediately evaluated. 

In situations requiring outside help, the Investigative 
Services Division can conduct a thorough and impartial 
investigation. Findings can fall into one of five categories: 
1) sustained - the act did occur, and amounts to official 
misconduct; 2) misconduct, but not part of the original 
complaint; 3) not sustained for lack of evidence; 4) 
exonerated - the act occurred but was justified; and 5) 
unfounded - the act or acts did not occur. Only those in 
the sustained category are entered into an employee's 
file, although he is always advised of the investigation 
results. Possible disciplinary action procedures are given. 
Other safeguards, including a weekly in-service training 
program on the Fire Prevention Code, the objective of 
which is to develop competent, highly professional inspec- 
tors of good moral character, and unquestionable integri- 
ty, are reviewed. 

j. PUBLIC RELATIONS 

[No entries] 

k. TOOLS, APPLIANCES, AND GENERAL 
EQUIPMENT 

1966 

A GLANCE AT EUROPEAN FIRE PROTECTION 

Anderson, W.B. 

Fire CTuef 24(ll):47-49, November 1980. 

Differences between European and United States fire- 
fighting equipment are discussed, based on the author's 
study of eight fire departments in six European countries. 
Some generalizations made about European versus U.S. 
equipment are: 1) Europe has fewer fire stations per 
capita, but most are large complexes; 2) firefighting 
vehicles are more compact; 3) apparatus is completely 
enclosed; 4) a quasi-military structure dominates; 5) 
screw-type hose couplings are not used; 6) hose diameters 
are basically only two sizes; and 7) all self-contained 
breathing apparatus is pressure-demand. Another inter- 
esting difference is that in many European fire depart- 
ments, each pumper carries its own fire hydrant, connect- 
ing it to a street water supply line, which is located by a 
sign posted on a nearby building or utility pole. While 
some areas of European firefighting practices seem less 
effective, such as the lack of adequate protective clothing, 



others seem to merit study as better alternatives than 
those used in the United States today. Photographs of 
some of the equipment mentioned are included. 

1967 

LIFELINES OR DEATH ROPES? 

Ticknor, J.M. 

Fire Command 47(1 2): 12- 13, December 1980. 

A comprehensive overview of fire service ropes is 
presented. Manila, nylon, polyester, polypropylene, three- 
stand twisted, and double-braided ropes are compared. 
Operational characteristics and physical qualities of the 
various ropes are listed. Technical and maintenance 
parameters of the ropes show that double-braid synthetic 
rope provides greatly improved performance over the now 
commonly used manila ropes. Guidelines for use of the' 
the ropes as well as kinking, elongation, tensile strength, 
shock loading, chemical resistance, and abrasion are some* 
of the areas investigated. Tables show a comparison of 
eight characteristics for nylon, polyester, polypropylene 
and manila ropes and the approximate breaking strength 
and weight per 100 feet for 1/2-, 5/8-, and 3/4-inch ropes 
of 3-strand manila, 3-strand nylon, and Parallay double-> 
braid. 

1968 

EXPERIMENTATION ON LOSSES OF HYDRAU- 
LIC PRESSURE FROM 70 MM FIRE HOSES 

Amore, P. 

Anticendio 5(11):35-41, November 1980 (Italian). 

Eight types of 70 mm diameter flexible fire hose were- 
tested to measure loss of hydraulic pressure over 20 
meters at an entry pressure of 6 kg/cm 2 , with outflow 
varying from 200 to 1100 liters of water/minute. Hoses 
were samples of commercially available stock, one of 
which was not waterproofed internally, one of which was 
waterproofed with a polyurethane layer, and six of which 
were rubberized internally. Four tables and three figures « 
show results of the testing. No single value stands out as a 
basis for choosing a type of hose independent of all the 
parameters tested. 

1969 

TESTING 45 MM FIRE HOSE FOR PRESSURE 

DROP 

Amore, P. 

Antincendio 32(l):33-40, January 1980 (Italian). 

Ten types of 45 mm diameter flexible firehose w re 
tested to measure loss of hydraulic pressure over 20 
meters at an entry pressure of 6 kg/cm 2 , with outflow 
varying from 200 to 500 liters/minute. Samples were of 
an old-type hose with no internal waterproofing; one with 
an internal polyurethane waterproofing layer; and eight . 
with rubberized internal waterproofing. Four tables and 
three figures show results of the testing. Methodology is 



60 



. 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 

Fire Service Organization and Facilities 



depicted in eight photographs. All variables need to be 
cautiously considered together in choosing the best sam- 
ple. 



FIREGROUND OPERATIONS 



a. COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALLING 



b. EVACUATION AND RESCUE 



1970 

COMPUTER AIDED DISPATCH BECOMES $15 
'MILLION REALITY IN NEW YORK CITY 

Mohan, J.J. 

Fire Engineering 133(10):22, 24, 26, October 1980. 

The development, capabilities, and operation of the 
New York City Fire Department's new computer-aided 
.dispatch network is presented. STARFIRE is a $15 
million project which utilizes 14 computers, 12 microcom- 
» puter systems and 500 fire station computer terminals. A 
central computer processes all alarms which are collected 
at each node (borough dispatch office) of the five-point 
star. Dispatch times of 40 seconds are possible through 
the direct connection of 16,000 alarm boxes and high- 
speed fire station printers. Expansion possibilities exist 
for digital status reporting, hazard data base, and ad- 

• vanced field communications. 

' 1971 
HIGH-RISE HAZARD. IN NEW YORK, A TOW- 
ERING INFERNO REVIVES OLD QUESTIONS 
ABOUT FIREFIGHTING STRATEGY 

» Eysser, H.J. 
Firehouse 5(9):73-74, September 1980. 

■ 

The company responses of the New York City Fire 
Department to the June 1980 high-rise fire in Manhattan 
is documented and the fire statistics associated with the 
blaze are given. A total of 25 pumper, 14 ladder, and three 

* rescue companies operated at this fire which injured 127 
firefighters. The reason given for the high number of 
injuries was that firefighters refused to abandon the hose 
lines when their air packs were almost empty. A map 
illustrating the distribution of fire company locations in 
Manhattan and a chronological listing of company dis- 
patch times are included. 



1972 

SEARCH ALERT. INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES 

TURN THE LOST INTO FOUND 

Vines, T. 

Firehouse 5(11):55, 56, 58-60, November 1980. 

A comprehensive discussion is presented of wilderness 
ground search procedures. Innovative techniques includ- 
ing size-up of the situation, victim profile, search area, 
establishing a search procedure, and information man- 
agement are considered. Results of victim surveys and 
search procedure analysis are given to provide some 
statistical information for use in search missions. Also 
discussed are the use of tracking dogs, some examples of 
search failures, and command and coordination guide- 
lines. The importance of a complete critique of any 
incident, to aid in future searches, is emphasized, along 
with the need for good management, preplanning, organi- 
zation, and practice. 

1973 

"YOU JUST COULDN'T TAKE A BREATH." 
NOXIOUS FUMES FORCE EVACUATION AF- 
TER HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SPILL 

Anon. 

Fire Command 47(10):18, 19, 21, October 1980. 

A hazardous material spill that forced the evacuation 
of thousands of people in the Boston area is described. 
The spill occurred in April 1980 at a railroad yard in 
Somerville, MA. A tank car containing 13,000 gallons of 
phosphorous trichloride, a corrosive chemical used in 
various industrial processes, was struck and ruptured. 
The resulting spill formed a highly noxious vapor cloud, 
necessitating the evacuation of a 30-block area downwind 
of the spill site. An account of the city's response to the 
emergency is given and various problems encountered, 
such as shifting winds, are discussed. 



61 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fireground Operations 



1!)74 
FIREFIGHTERS 

Coleman, R. 

Emergency Planning Digest 7(4):3-4, October-De- 
cember 1980. 

A large forest fire, which roared through the Riding 
Mountain National Park in Manitoba (Canada) during 
May and June of 1980, is described. The Canadian Forces 
aided civilian firefighters with aircraft and ground 
troops, providing support camps, communications, planes 
and helicopters, and firefighting crews. Aircraft were 
used to move civilians from towns in the line of the fire; 
the evacuation of the town of Red Lake being recorded as 
Canada's largest air rescue operation. Helicopters were 
utilized to transport personnel and equipment, to provide 
a water-bombing service, and to rescue trapped firefight- 
ers. The cooperation of the military, government, and 
social agencies, developed during the 1979 Manitoba 
flood, is credited with the smooth operation of all con- 
cerned in the incident. 

c. HYDRAULICS AND WATER FLOWS 

[No entries] 

d. OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS: COMMAND AND 
CONTROL 

1975 

RAPID FIRE SPREAD AT LINZ BAKERY 

PLANT 

Tichy, H. 

Fire International 6(68):42-45, September 1980. 

A large fire in an Austrian bakery plant caused 
damage in excess of $7 million and a complete shutdown 
of operations. The plant occupied 12,000 m 2 surrounded 
by four streets. The roofing and roof covering of the 
buildings was wood. Fire walls once separating the 
buildings had sin^e been breached to assist in plant 
operations. When the fire brigade arrived, one portion of 
the complex was fully involved and the roof had col- 
lapsed. Firefighters were gaining control of the fire wlien 
an explosion occurred, believed to have originated in the 
heating installation. Within minutes the entire complex 
was on fire, as the fire spread through the breached fire 
walls. The fire brigades were delayed by the locks on all 
doors and gates which had to be forced open. They were 
further hampered by a lack of knowledge of the building 
interior. Despite the adverse circumstances, firefighters 
prevented the fire from spreading to nearby residential 
units and to a nearby spirits and yeast plant. Even though 
there were numerous large and small explosions, no one 
was injured. There was good cooperation between police, 
rescue personnel and firefighters. 



e. SPECIAL EQUIPMENT 

1976 

LARGE-DIAMETER HOSE PROVES EFFEC 

TIVE 

Albinger, P.E. 

Fire Chief 2A(ll):50-51, 53, November 1980. 

The large-diameter hose used by the Saukville (Wiscon, 
sin) Volunteer Fire Department is described in detail 
Through the use of 4-inch hose, distributors, soft suction, 
1000-gallon booster tanks, and portable tanks, it is 
possible for this department to obtain large water flows in 
town and in suburban and rural areas with minimum 
manpower. Five photographs are used to illustrate the| 
department's methods. 

1977 

CHEMICAL AGENT INJECTION SYSTEM FORI 

FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT 

Hollan, M.E.; Bayles, J.J. 

U.S. Patent No. 1234,041 U.S. CI. 169/14; 137/99 
(Int. CI. A62C 35/00), Appl. September 27, 1978, 
Disci. November 18, 1980, Assignees: The United 
States of America as represented by the Secretary 
of the Navy, Washington, D.C. 

A chemical agent injection system suitable for remote- 
controlled fire extinguishment is described. The system 
utilizes a stored chemical agent that is mixed with water 
prior to dispersion into the fire zone. In addition to 
overcoming some of the problems of earlier inventions,- 
this system has a self-cleaning feature and an antomatic 
cut-off device to prevent damage from operating the unit 
dry. Background on the invention is provided, the system 
is schematically diagrammed, and its operation is ex- 
plained. The unit is said to be useful in military applica- 
tions and remote, rural locations. 

1978 

FIRE FIGHTING FROM THE SKY 

Ditzel, P. 

The International Fire Chief 46(10):14-17, October 

1980. 

The historical development of firefighting aircraft is • 
reviewed and examples of their use are given. Planes 
have been used as a firefighting tool since 1917. Most 
were military surplus planes converted to drop water or 
fire retardants on fires in wooded or rural areas. Helicop- 
ters came into use in the post-Korean years since they 
experienced fewer crashes and are more maneuverable 
than fixed-wing airplanes. During use in brush fires in 4 
Los Angeles, for example, helicopters landed at a helispot 
set up near the fire, loaded up with water to dump on the 
fire and then returned for refilling. Turnaround time 
from water supply to fire and back is a matter of minutes. 



62 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



About 10 years ago, upon the encouragement of Cana- 
da's director of the forest fire protection service, Canadi- 
ans designed and built a plane for firefighting, the CL- 
215, also known as the Superscooper. It has two probes 
which, in 10 seconds, can fill two 720 gallon tanks from 
almost any size body of water on which the plane has 
skimmed the surface. The Superscooper can release its 
water at once in a 280-foot-long pattern, or in a longer 
465-foot pattern, and can fly as slow as 95 knots before 
water release. Under optimum conditions the CL-215 can 
deliver 100 tons of water an hour. A controversy is noted 
on whether money is better spent buying several helicop- 
ters for the cost of one Superscooper. 

f. TACTICS 

1979 

TIPS ON FIGHTING CHIMNEY FIRES 

Cribley, C.E. 

Fire Command 47(11):30-31, November 1980. 

The extremely hot fire that can result from the ignition 
of creosote buildup in a chimney, and step-by-step proce- 
dures for controlling chimney fires are discussed. Fire 
scenarios, size-up, fireplace clearance, extinguisher us- 
age, chimney clearance, roof protection, overhaul, and 
fire chasing are all considered in detail. Safety guidelines 
and three photographs are included in this review of 
chimney firefighting. 

1980 

ALBANY — THREE-ALARM PETROLEUM FIRE 

Saly, A.J. 

Firehouse 5(11):29, 31, 83, November 1980. 

A chronological fire report is presented of a September 
7, 1980, fire at an Albany, New York, Mobil Oil plant. 
Details of the Albany and volunteer fire department's 
response, the fire situation, firefighting techniques, and 
fireground problems (fireballs, gasoline pools, pump fail- 
ure, high-expansion foam use, unused site protection 
features) are presented. Nine firefighters were injured in 
the blaze which took three hours to bring under control. 

1981 

MIAMI UNDER SIEGE. FIREFIGHTERS FACE 

RIOTING — AGAIN 

Saly, A.J. 

Firehouse 5(9):52-56, September 1980. 

The problem of protection for firefighters during riot 
conditions is examined in this review of firefighting 
efforts during the May 1980 riots in Miami, Florida. First 
hand accounts reveal the anxieties, disillusionments, and 
frustrations of the firefighters present. The relationship 
between the degree of the disturbance and the EMS calls 
and fire calls is noted. Statistical information provided 



Fireground Operations 

shows: 18 persons were killed (14 from riot-related 
incidents); 37 Miami buildings were completely destroyed 
by fire; and 150 structures were looted and/or burned. 

1982 

BLAST STARTS FLOWING GASOLINE FIRE AT 

PIPELINE COMPANY TANK FIRE 

Ludford, L. 

Fire Engineering 133(11):38-41, November 1980. 

A fire which started on April 16, 1980, in an older 
section of the largest petroleum storage tank farm in 
Minnesota is described. A pump ruptured, spilling an 
estimated 2000 gallons of gasoline before ignition. The 
entire pump/manifold area was involved. In the older 
section of the terminal, no internal water supply was 
available, so lines had to be laid to a nearby hydrant and 
master streams set up for exposure protection of adjacent 
gasoline tanks. An attempt was made to close the valve to 
the fuel supply but it was too damaged and the next 
nearest shut-off valve was 10 miles away. The decision 
was made to let the fire burn out and continue the 
exposure protection. Approximately 7 hours after it 
started the fire was declared to be in a controlled burn 
state. It was April 20 before all apparatus and equipment 
were returned to service. Photographs and a fireground 
diagram are included. 

1983 

ON THE JOB: TEXAS, FAST SPREADING MO- 
TEL BLAZE 

White, D. 

Firehouse 5(12):22-23,49, December 1980. 

A fire at the Padre South Hotel on South Padre Island, 
Texas which caused an estimated 5 million dollars 
damage is described. The fire started on the sixth floor 
and spread down to the third and up to the eighth before 
being brought under control. The hose connected to the 
standpipe on the sixth floor ruptured upon charging. The 
island fire department was unable to use the standpipe 
system because there was no fire department connection 
or fire pump. Combustible wood paneling in corridors and 
penetration in the concrete floor caused rapid fire spread. 
Mutual aid was required and over 150 firefighters using 
15 pieces of apparatus were needed before the fire was 
controlled. The lack of any building and fire codes for 
construction outside an incorporated city was also respon- 
sible for some of the problems encountered. Several 
photographs are included. 



63 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fireground Operations 



L984 

ON THE JOB: CHICAGO, "5-11" PLUS: CFD'S 

ALL-OUT BATTLE 

Harridge. J.L. 

Firehouse 5(12):14-15, 58, December 1980. 

Nearly half of Chicago's on-duty firefighters and appa- 
ratus were required to control a fire raging through a 
warehouse complex along the Chicago River. The ware- 
house contained several thousand drums of differing 
chemicals, many of which contained flammable materi- 
als. The strategy employed was to isolate the fire, prevent 
spreading, and break the heat wave. Fireboats were 
unable to reach the scene because of a low bridge, and 
manpower was needed to get their hoselines in to supply 
water. The radiating heat was such that firefighters could 
stay on line only about 15 minutes before needing relief. 
Equipment was damaged by the extreme temperatures, 
but after a little over three hours, the fire was declared 
officially under control. 



1985 

MANAGEMENT OF FLAMMABLE LIQUID 

STORAGE TANK FIRES PART 1 - THE BASICS 

Herzog, G.R. 

The International Fire Chief W(12) -.22-24, December 

1980. 

Actions leading to the extinguishment of liquid storage 
tank fires are discussed in this first of three articles on 
the management of such fires. The importance of sizing- 
up the fire scene is stressed, and factors to be considered 
are listed, including: the type of product involved (flam- 
mable or combustible, hydrocarbon or polar); the number 
of tanks involved; the type of tank construction (cone or 
fixed roof, open top floating roof, or covered floating roof 
consisting of a fixed roof with an internal floating deck or 
pan); and the tank diameter and height. Foam concentra- 
tion formulas are given, as well as water requirements. 
Size-up will determine whether additional help will be 
needed to extinguish the fire; and foam application 
should not begin until sufficient equipment and foam 
agent are at the scene. Finally, the practice of deluging 
surrounding tanks with water is felt to be unnecessary, 
especially when the water supply may be needed to 
control the fire itself. Only those tanks in immediate 
danger should be cooled down with water spray. Illustra- 
tions of tank and roof types are included. 



PLANNING 



a. BUDGETING 

[No entries] 

b. LOGISTICS 

1986 

PLANNING MASS EVACUATION BEFORE DI- 
SASTER OCCURS 

Isman, W.E. 

Fire Engineering 133(9):126-130, September 1980. 

Present knowledge of evacuation planning, relative to 
hazardous materials incidents, is summarized and the 
importance of such planning is explained. Results of a 
study by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of 
evacuations of 25 or more persons related to major 
disasters between 1960 and 1973 are discussed. Of the 500 
events listed by EPA. 54 were analyzed in-depth including 



all transportation accidents related to hazardou - materi- 
als and causing an evacuation of more than 500 ..arsons. 
Factors connected with evacuation risks are listed, but no 
conclusions about the risk of death as a result of an 
evacuation are given. A comparison of accident rates 
found that the motor vehicle death rate would be four 
times higher during an evacuation than during normal 
driving conditions, and evacuation-caused accidents are 
three to six times higher than national figures. 

Fifteen problems encountered in past evacuations are 
listed and include: traffic congestion; rush to stock up on 
food; reluctance to leave area; evacuation of special 
facilities; and separation of families. Suggestions for 
avoiding such problems are provided and an evacuation 
plan outline is presented. 

c. OPERATIONS ANALYSIS 

[No entries] 



64 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



HUMAN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL PROBLEMS 

[For more complete coverage of the behavioral and medical literature see: Psychology Abstracts and Index 

Medicus.] 



a. ARSON 

1987 

THE FIREFIGHTER AND THE SOCIAL WORK- 
ER 

Boyd, J.D. 

Western Fire Journal 32(12):23-24, December 1980. 

The story of a young, mentally-retarded arsonist, who 
was assisted through the cooperation of the fire service 
and the social service community, is related. The 15-year- 
old girl had been placed in a community house where she 
had proceeded to set several fires. The Fire Marshal and 
Assistant Prosecutor were faced with the choice of re- 
institutionalizing the girl or sending her to a juvenile 
delinquent home. Through the cooperation of social 
workers, it was possible to place her temporarily in the 
intensive care unit of a local hospital's psychiatric ward. 
In the meantime, an appropriate treatment program was 
created in the community and a more adequate place for 
her to live was located. Concluding statements stress the 
need for cooperation between firefighters, social service 
agencies, the court, and the prosecutor's office on mental 
health, arson, child abuse, and child arson problems. 

1988 

SANTA BARBARA COUNTY ORGANIZES 

AGAINST ARSON 

Chung, J.Y.; Kennedy, J.T. 

Western Fire Journal 32(10):21-23, October 1980. 

Santa Barbara County, California, has advanced the 
investigative and legal skills of fire and law enforcement 
police personnel by the formation of the Santa Barbara 
Fire/ Arson Investigators Association (FAIA). Training 
has been conducted at each of the group's monthly 
meetings and at specialized training programs such as, a 
40-hour basic fire investigation course, an 8-hour seminar 
on clandestine devices, and evaluation and demonstration 
of contemporary investigative techniques and technology. 
During June, a comprehensive training exercise was 
conducted which consisted of investigating six ignition 
sources for a training burn of a fully furnished house. The 
exercise continued through a mock court trial with a 
Santa Barbara Superior Court judge presiding. 



1989 

INTERVIEWING AND COUNSELING JUVENILE 
FIRESETTERS: THE CHILD UNDER SEVEN 
YEARS OF AGE 

Anon. 

Federal Emergency Management Agency, U.S. Fire 
Administration, Washington, D.C., FA-28, 50 pages, 
November 1979. 

Availability: GPO 064-000-00001-2 

Suggestions by fire service representatives and psy- 
chologists for dealing with juvenile firesetters are provid- 
ed as a guide for fire departments faced with this 
problem. The manual aims at teaching fire service 
personnel: 1) to recognize problems in children that may 
lead to recurrent firesetting; 2) to interview firesetting 
children and their families; 3) methods and strategies for 
educating curiosity firesetters and their families; 4) to 
select children and families for professional mental 
health assistance based on the severity of their problems; 
and 5) ways to refer children and families for appropriate 
mental health assistance. The appendix contains a family 
interview and evaluation form, a parent questionnaire, 
and a child interview form. 

1990 

ARSON FIRE SNUFFS OUT ANOTHER LIFE 

Groah, M.L. 

Fire Command 47(10):22-23, October 1980. 

An arson fire that claimed the life of a volunteer 
firefighter is discussed. The fire, which destroyed a 
Harrisonburg, Virginia restaurant, was set by a long-time 
arsonist. A chronological account of the local fire depart- 
ment's response is presented, and a brief personal profile 
of the arsonist is given. During the five-alarm fire, a 
prearranged mutual aid plan, involving the coordination 
of area fire companies, was fully tested for the first time. 
The plan proved effective. 

1991 

RECKLESSNESS AND FORESIGHT IN ARSON 

West, W.T. 

The Solicitors' Journal 124:336-339, May 16, 1980. 

The concept of "recklessness," with particular empha- 
sis on the legal interpretation of the concept in the court 
system of the United Kingdom, is explored. A variety of 
court cases, one involving arson, that required an inter- 
pretation of the recklessness concept to be considered in 
determining whether the defendant was guilty or not 
guilty, are discussed. The facts of each case are reviewed 



65 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Human Behavior, Social, and Medical Problems 



and judicial summations are excerpted. According to the 
review, recklessness is a subjective concept and must take 
into consideration an individual's foresight of the risks of 
damage to persons or property as a result of their 
deliberate actions. 

1992 

ARSON REPORTING— IMMUNITY LEGISLA- 
TION 

Woodman, D. 

The National Law Journal 2:24, January 7, 1980. 

A matrix identifying the various characteristics of 
arson reporting — immunity legislation enacted in the 50 
states is presented. For each state with such laws, 
information is provided on: the year the law was enacted; 
the bill number; civil and criminal immunity provisions; 
whether various state agencies have authority to examine 
insurance company files; whether insurance companies 
must flag suspicious fires; whether insurance companies 
may seek information on suspicious fires from appropri- 
ate state agencies; whether notification of a fire to one 
state agency is sufficient; whether authorities must 
testify in civil suits; and whether authorized state agen- 
cies may share fire-related information with other autho- 
rized agencies. A brief explanation of each legislative 
characteristic is provided. 

1993 

ARSON PREVENTION AND CONTROL: STUDY 

SEEKS WAYS TO ELIMINATE ANNUAL 

LOSSES: 1,000 LIVES AND $1.2 BILLION OF 

PROPERTY 

Anon. 

Los Angeles Daily Journal 93:4, August 20, 1980. 

A review of a report, "Arson Prevention and Control," 
prepared under a grant from the National Institute of 
Justice is presented. The report examined various means 
of reducing loss of life and property due to arson and is 
based on a survey of 170 cities, selected municipal arson 
control units, public interest groups, insurance compa- 
nies, and others. One of the most important developments 
noted is the realization that local fire and police depart- 
ments cannot control arson alone, but rather must work 
with independent, interagency coordinating groups to 
bring diverse community resources to bear on the prob- 
lem. Other approaches discussed include arson patrols, 
media campaigns, juvenile and community service orga- 
nizations, criminal code enforcement, and legislative 
reform. The development of computer-based information 
systems, such as national reporting, local investigative, 
and early warning systems, are also emphasized as 
necessary preventive and control measures. 



1994 

ARSON HUNT 

Saly, A.J. 

Firehouse 5(9):93-94, 97, 98, 100, September 1980. 

Arson's "Part 1" crime status has caused a classifica- 
tion controversy between the FBI and the arson control 
community. Earlier statistics developed by the FBI have 
been of marginal value in estimating the scope of the 
arson problems which others have stated is increasing at 
a 25 percent annual rate. The importance of identifying 
arson as a Part I crime is illustrated by a comparison of 
the types of information published by the FBI's Uniform 
Crime Reporting section for Part I and Part II crimes. The 
arguments presented at the 1977 Congressional proceed- 
ings which eventually led to the reclassification of arson 
as a Part I crime, are summarized, including statistical 
information presented by the National Fire Protection 
Association, and the International Association of Fire 
Chiefs. Results of an arson survey commissioned by the 
Law Enforcement Assistance Administration are also 
reviewed. 

1995 

CURRENT ARSON ISSUES: A POSITION PAPER 

Anon. 

Insurance Committee for Arson Control, Chicago, 

IL, 46 pages, November 1980. 

Selected issues relevant to arson control are explored. 
Topics discussed include legal issues related to the 
prosecution and defense of arson cases, applicable compa- 
ny procedures regarding insurance claims in arson cases, 
public policy issues such as municipal liens and urban 
revitalization, and related issues, namely automobile 
arson. For each topic addressed, a statement of purpose 
and background information are presented, relevant 
current activities and issues are reviewed, and related 
recommendations are listed. Six appendices are also 
included. Model laws regarding various aspects of arson 
control are provided and a matrix summarizing the arson 
reporting — immunity laws for all 50 states is given. 

1996 

"THE MOST NEGLECTED CRIME IN THE UNIT 

ED STATES" 

Freudenheim, B. 

Barrister 7:11-14, 20, Spring 1980. 

New trends in the fight against arson, noting past 
neglect of the problem, are discussed. Increased efforts at 
the Federal level, including interagency anti-arson pro- 
grams, reclassification of arson as an FBI Part II crime to 
a more severe Part I crime, and pending legislation to 
make arson a Federal crime, are cited. Local efforts are 
also addressed, including: alleviation of jurisdictional 
disputes by formation of local interagency task forces; 
improvements in the management and sophistication of 



66 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Human Behavior, Social, and Medical Problems 



arson investigations; and increased use of computerized 
analysis of arson incidents. Changes in insurance regula- 
tions to reduce the profit motive in arson, and emphasis 
on the prosecution and sentencing of arsonists, are cited 
as still other approaches being used. Information on how 
to obtain a publication intended to develop arson exper- 
tise among criminal prosecutors is also provided. 

1997 

COMMITTING ARSON BY RECKLESSNESS 

Anon. 

Journal of Criminal Law 44:154-156, August 1980. 

A court case in the United Kingdom, R. versus Stephen- 
son, involving the role of "recklessness" in committing 
arson is reviewed. The defendant, once diagnosed as a 
schizophrenic, set fire to a stack of straw to keep warm. 
The fire eventually destroyed the entire stack and Steph- 
enson was brought to trial. According to the applicable 
law, the Criminal Justice Act of 1971, a defendant must 
commit a deliberate act of destruction, while being aware 
of the risk of damage, to be declared guilty. Thus, 
declaration of guilt by a jury requires a subjective 
judgement as to a defendant's behavior. The various 
aspects of making such a subjective judgement are 
discussed. 

1998 

ARSON— PERSISTENT OFFENCES OF A SERI- 
OUS NATURE— WHETHER LIFE IMPRISON- 
MENT JUSTIFIED 

Thomas, D.A. 

Criminal Law Review 1980:247-248, April 1980. 

A court case from the United Kingdom (R. versus 
Watson), involving an apellant who was convicted for a 
number of crimes including arson, is reviewed with 
regard to whether persistently committing criminal acts 
is justification for life imprisonment. In addition to 
background information on the defendant, relevant facts 
of the arson incident, previous convictions, imposed 
sentences, special considerations in the case, and the 
judicial decisions are noted. The author's comments on 
the case are also given, stating that analysis of the case, 
and comparisons with other similar cases, reveal that it 
falls within the recognized criteria for imposition of life 
imprisonment. 

1999 

BATTLE AGAINST ARSON HEATS UP, SPEAK- 
ERS SAY 

Podgers, J. 

American Bar Association Journal 66:1049-1050, 

September 1980. 

Panelists speaking at an annual meeting of the Ameri- 
can Bar Association noted the growing economic losses 



from arson and reviewed some of the steps being taken to 
reduce them. Since 1978, an estimated $1.1 billion dollars 
worth of property and over 1,000 lives are lost annually. 
Efforts being taken to reduce these losses include arson 
control programs at all levels of government, strengthen- 
ing the prosecutors role in arson cases, and removing the 
economic incentive for arson by eleminating fraudulent 
insurance claims. Federal assistance to local communities 
for various arson control activities and making arson a 
Federal crime were also suggested as valuable weapons 
against arson. Additional panelists called for the involve- 
ment of mortgage lending institutions in solving inner- 
city arson problems. A recommendation was made for a 
closer look at the role played by organized crime in 
causing arson. 

2000 

BEATING THE ARSON GAME 

Matza, M. 

Student Law 24(6):24-26, 61-63, September 1980. 

An anti-arson program developed by citizens and 
public officials in Boston, Massachusetts, for the protec- 
tion of an aging inner-city area, is described. National 
and local fire loss statistics are reviewed, and major 
problems in prosecuting arson cases are discussed. Bos- 
ton's success in combatting arson began when a multi- 
million dollar arson ring involving 33 individuals was 
broken up through the efforts of the state's attorney 
general, assisted by a local citizens group, Symphony 
Tenants Organizing Project (STOP). The STOP group 
developed a theory linking arson with inner-city decay, 
which was based on an analysis of real estate and 
mortgage data. It was apparent that landlords found it 
more profitable to burn buildings than to rent or sell 
them, because of the insurance settlements. The data 
collected was also used to predict arson target areas. 
Details on the program's background, development and 
operation are provided, and efforts to disseminate infor- 
mation to other communities on the techniques and 
methods being used to combat arson in Boston are noted. 

2001 

ANATOMY OF AN ARSON INVESTIGATION 

Anon. 

Journal of American Insurance 56(1):8-11, Spring 

1980. 

The role of the insurance investigator in cases of arson 
is discussed, since an insurance claim can be denied only 
if arson, with the intent to defraud, is established. 
Insurance Claims Services, Inc. of Chicago was formed to 
provide trained arson investigators to any property-casu- 
alty insurer upon request. At the fire scene, the investiga- 
tors look for the point of fire origin, study the burn 
pattern, take photographs, and gather samples for analy- 
sis. They must be able to rule out all natural and 
accidental causes. They also try to establish if any 



67 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Human Behavior, Social, and Medical Problems 



valuable or sentimental objects are missing or if there are 
any obvious building code violations. An investigation 
includes interviews with firefighters who were at the 
scene of the fire; a check with police on the policyholder; 
and study of the policy itself to see if there are any signs 
of fraudulence or any recent changes. The insurer is then 
presented with a detailed report of the investigation. 
Three arson cases are discussed in the context of such 
investigations. 

Model legislation (the Arson Reporting-Immunity Law) 
drafted by the Alliance of American Insurers, which 
removes the possibility of criminal prosecution for insur- 
ers who supply arson information, and the responsibility 
for damages in a civil suit, is outlined. To date, 39 states 
have adopted some form of this legislation. 

2002 

A PROFILE OF THE TYPICAL PYROMANIAC 

Anon. 

The Fire and Arson Investigator 31(2): 17-20, Octo- 
ber-December 1980. 

Psychological and physiological characteristics of the 
typical firesetter are presented. Characteristics covered 
include age, sex, race, intelligence, physical defects, 
enuresis, mental disorders, academic adjustment, rearing 
environment, social class structure, social adjustment, 
marital adjustment, sexual adjustment, occupa- 
tion/employment history, personality, criminal history, 
use of alcohol, suicide, motives, and irresistible impulse. 
The firesetting experience includes characteristics of the 
type of fires, number of fires, false alarms, time of day, 
regard for life, type of firesetter, emotional state, behav- 
ior prior to firesetting and during firesetting, arrest, 
confession, selection of target, and recidivism. The schizo- 
phrenic male firesetter is also characterized. A list of 
cluster characteristics frequently manifested in patholog- 
ical arsonists is presented as well as a list of variables 
that should be analyzed in preparing a psychological 
profile of a firesetter. 

2003 

THE FIRESETTER: A PSYCHOLOGICAL PRO- 
FILE 

Rider, A.O. 

The Fire and Arson Investigator 31(2):3-9, October- 
December 1980. 

Typical psychological characteristics of the firesetter 
are presented. Arson has grown at a quantum rate during 
the ten-year period from 1964 to 1974. Monetary losses 
due to arson fires increased approximately 726 percent 
during that period. Arson-for-profit has been labeled the 
fastest growing crime in the country by Senator Sam 
Nunn, Chairman of the U.S. Senate Arson-for-Hire 
Hearings. The systematic study of arson has been directly 
affected by five problematic areas including: apprehen- 



sion of the arsonist; legal disposition of cases; sources of 
statistics; legal constraints in information exchange; and 
focus, taxonomies, and conclusions of previous studies. 
Arson is a very difficult crime to detect and prove; the 
success of the investigation often relying the expertise of 
the investigator. The motivational factors concerning the 
firesetter are of great help in supporting a criminal 
prosecution and are therefore a main focus of an arson 
investigation. Various motivational factors are discussed 
and explained from a psychological viewpoint. 

2004 

AN ANALYSIS OF ARSON IN A SOCIO-ECO- 
NOMIC FRAMEWORK: REVISITED 1976-1978, 
PART ONE 

Brace, T.R. 

The Fire and Arson Investigator 31(2):21-44, Octo- 
ber-December 1980. 

The updated investigation of the social and economic 
factors affecting arson problems in Seattle is reviewed. As 
a result of the initial study, a specially trained Arson 
Investigation Unit was created and a senior prosecuting 
attorney was selected to handle arson cases. The question, 
"What effect have these developments had on the arson 
problem?" is discussed. Arson spatial trends were evalu- 
ated on the basis of census tract regions to make the 
results comparable with the initi^ study. The data show 
an upsurge of arson activity in the proximity of down- 
town Seattle and an overall improvement in other urban 
areas. The physical setting of arson was studied and the 
results showed that: 1) residential arson fires rose dra- 
matically in 1976 and in a greater proportion than other 
arson cases in all three years (1978-1978); 2) mercantile, 
vacant building and educational occupancies experienced 
an improvement in volume and losses during the period; 
and 3) damage was significantly reduced in arson fires. 
Finally, the arson dollar losses were adjusted for inflation 
to allow for a direct comparison from year-to-year. The 
method for this adjustment is presented and a table of fire 
losses is included. 

2005 

FOCUSING ON THE FLAME: AS THE POLICE 

MOVE IN WILL THE ARSONIST MOVE OUT? 

Dwyer, R.L. 

The Police Chief 46(6):19, 15, June 1980. 

The current status of arson investigations, and the 
changes in arson legislation which have brought about 
the new cooperative efforts between fire personnel and 
police, are discussed by the Chief of Police of Middletown, 
Ohio. Previous attitudes of fire personnel, police, insur- 
ance companies, and the general public, all of which have 
contributed to the arson problem that has increased 
dramatically since 1975, are reviewed. One of the basic 
reasons cited for the lack of competent arson investiga- 
tions, up until 1979, was that the responsibility for this 



68 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Human Behavior, Social, and Medical Problems 



job rested with the fire department, and in the U.S., 85 
percent of these departments are made up of volunteers, 
with no trained fire investigators. These departments 
have had to depend on an understaffed State Fire 
Marshall's office to investigate suspicious fires, and it was 
often easier to list "faulty wiring," or "unknown origin" 
as the cause. Other rationalizations by police and insur- 
ance companies are also given for the low rate of arson 
convictions. 

With the change in 1979 (originally opposed by police), 
of the classification of arson from a Part II to Part I 
crime, mandatory cooperation in investigations became a 
reality. Some areas, such as Seattle, have already shown 
that such plans can reduce arson, and although much still 
needs to be done, it is felt that with the expertise of the 
police, upgrading of laboratories, and special training in 
arson investigation, the nationwide problem can be 
reduced. 

2006 

ARSON AND ARSON INVESTIGATION IN THE 

UNITED STATES 

Carter, RE. 

The Fire and Arson Investigator 31(2):45-56, Octo- 
ber-December 1980. 

The extent of arson in the United States, its causes, and 
the activities intended to control it are discussed. Statis- 
tics are presented on 1978 arson fires and resulting 
damage, and the primary motives in arson are identified. 
Arson-for-profit is described with reference to Fair Access 
to Insurance Requirement (FAIR) plans and urban de- 
struction due to riots. The homicidal nature of many of 
the arson-related fires is noted and the incessant occu- 
rence of vandalism blazes is cited. Federal, insurance 
industry, and private organizations arson control efforts 
are listed and explained. This review was presented at the 
Third International Fire Protection Engineering Insti- 
tute, held February, 1980 in the Netherlands. 

b. COMBUSTION TOXICOLOGY 

2007 

DEVELOPMENT OF RECOMMENDED TEST 
METHOD FOR TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESS- 
MENT OF INHALED COMBUSTION PRODUCTS 

Birky, M.M.; Paabo, M.; Levin, B.C., et al. 
Center for Fire Research, National Bureau of 
Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce, Wash- 
ington, D.C., NBSIR-80-2077, 63 pages, September 
1980. 

The development of a test method for the measurement 
of the toxicity of combustion products from polymeric 
materials, including cellular plastics, is reported. The test 
procedure consists of three major elements: 1) combustion 
system, 2) the chemical analysis system, and 3) the 



animal exposure system. Two biological endpoints ob- 
tained from the exposure were: 1) incapacitation in a 30- 
minute exposure period, and 2) lethality in 30 minutes 
plus 14 days following exposure. The test apparatus was 
evaluated to determine mixing rates and loss of reactive 
chemicals in the exposure chamber. Also, a statistical 
evaluation of the results indicates that the incapacitation 
is independent of the animal location. The utility of the 
endpoints was demonstrated by the evaluation of a 
limited number of different materials that produce differ- 
ent toxicological syndromes. 

2008 

GENERATION OF CONSTANT CONCENTRA- 
TIONS OF THERMAL DECOMPOSITION PROD- 
UCTS IN INHALATION CHAMBERS. A COM- 
PARATIVE STUDY WITH A METHOD ACCORD- 
ING TO DIN 53 436. II. MEASUREMENT OF 
CONCENTRATIONS OF TOTAL VOLATILE OR- 
GANIC SUBSTANCES IN INHALATION CHAM- 
BERS 

Klimisch, H.-J. 

Journal of Combustion Toxicology 7:257-263, No- 
vember 1980. 

An experiment is described in which an attempt was 
made to determine whether or not constant and reproduc- 
ible concentrations of total organic carbon (THC) con- 
tained in various gaseous compounds could be maintained 
continuously in inhalation chambers through partial 
combustion of organic materials, as specified by the 
German method DIN 53 436. An attempt was also made to 
determine whether changes in concentration occur as a 
result of adsorption in the apparatus. In the method (DIN 
53 436), wood and plastic were pyrolysized; the decomposi- 
tion products were then diluted by a second stream of air 
and fed into an inhalation chamber. Concentrations were 
monitored with appropriate electronic equipment. It was 
found that concentrations can be maintained in the 
chamber by the method employed. Further, no significant 
change in concentration occurred due to system adsorp- 
tion. Thus DIN 53 436 appears to be a suitable method for 
generating inhalation mixtures for toxicological studies 
using animals. 

2009 

ENGINEERING TOXICOLOGY: MATCHING 
LABORATORY ANIMALS AND TEST APPARA- 
TUS 

Hilado, C.J.; Murphy, R.M. 

Journal of Combustion Toxicology 7:264-266, No- 
vember 1980. 

The proper use of restrained and confined laboratory 
animals in inhalation toxicology studies is discussed. It is 
noted that care must be taken to insure that the animals 
are neither too small at the start of the study, nor too 



69 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Human Behavior, Social, and Medical Problems 



large at the conclusion. Thus, animals selected must 
match the dimensions of the test apparatus for the 
duration of the study. Size can also effect the toxicological 
results. 

2010 

EFFECT OF FIRE RETARDANTS ON TOXICITY 
OF OFF-GASES: A REVIEW OF WORK DONE 
USING THE NASA-USF METHOD 

Hilado, C.J.; Huttlinger, P.A. 

Journal of Fire Retardant Chemistry 7:206-209, 

November 1980. 

A review of past studies that used the NASA-USF 
method to examine the toxicity of off-gases produced from 
materials with and without fire retardant treatment is 
presented. Toxicity data derived from tests on fire retar- 
dant treated cotton batting, vicose fibers, cellulose insula- 
tion, propylene fibers, vinyl fabric, and polyurethane 
flexible foam are summarized. The results of a compari- 
son show that in the majority of cases, the addition of fire 
retardants decreased relative toxicity under the particu- 
lar test conditions used. 

2011 

BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF TOXICITY 
CAUSED BY COMBUSTION OF BUILDING MA- 
TERIALS 

Herpol, C. 

Fire and Materials 4(3):127-143, September 1980. 

The need for toxicological testing of materials has been 
demonstrated by several large loss-of-life fires in Belgium 
since 1955. The results of tests performed on 34 materials 
including woods, synthetics, and textiles for toxicity of 
the combustion products are given. The materials were 
submitted to thermal degradation at three different 
temperatures and toxic products were measured. Numer- 
ous graphs, figures and tables are used to show the 
complexity of toxicological research undertaken. It is 
concluded that any combustible material will become 
dangerous because of toxicity when placed in its own 
critical condition. Therefore, consideration must be given 
to solutions other than classifying materials as good or 
bad in a system. Evacuation of the gases along with the 
design and number of escape routes should also be 
considered. It is stressed that despite extensive research 
in many countries, establishing any well-founded toxicity 
safety regulation for materials in buildings is not possible 
with the present "state of the art." 



2012 

COMPARATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF THE 
TOXICITY TO LABORATORY ANIMALS OF 
PRODUCTS OF THERMAL DECOMPOSITION 
GENERATED BY THE METHOD OF DIN 53 436 
Klimisch, H.-J.; Hollander, H.W.M.; Thyssen, J. 
Journal of Combustion Toxicology 7:209-230, No- 
vember 1980. 

Results from a series of interlaboratory toxicity studies 
using DIN 53.436, Part 3, "Method for a Test on the 
Inhalation Toxicity of Thermal Decomposition Products," 
are reported. The purpose of the series was to assess the 
reproducibility of results using the DIN method. Labora- 
tory rats were exposed to decomposition products accord- 
ing to the method, and concentrations of carbon monox- 
ide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen were determined. Other 
toxicological data were also obtained, and the findings 
presented. Details on the exposure apparatus are provid- 
ed. A comparison of the experimental data indicates that 
the DIN method makes it possible to generate reproduc- 
ible and quantitatively similar mixtures of thermal 
decomposition products in inhalation chambers in differ- 
ent laboratories. 

2013 

TOXICITY OF OFF-GASES FROM FURNISHING 

MATERIALS: A REVIEW 

Hilado, C.J.; Huttlinger, PA. 

Journal of Consumer Product Flammability 7:189- 

199, September 1980. 

Relative toxicity test data for the off-gases produced 
from overheating 98 samples of furniture upholstery 
fabrics, 41 samples of cushioning materials, 98 samples of 
plastics, and various material with and without fire 
retardants are presented in tabular form. The data were 
derived from toxicity screening tests using an inhalation 
chamber in a rising temperature program without forced 
air flow. The test conditions were intended to simulate 
pre-ignition and pre-flashover conditions. Each material 
tested is described and time to death information is given. 
In general, wool appeared to be the most toxic material 
evaluated. 

2014 

TOXICITY OF OFF-GASES FROM SOME CUSH- 
IONING MATERIALS 

Hilado, C.J.; Olcomendy, E.M. 

Journal of Consumer Product Flammability 7:147- 

149, September 1980. 

Results of tests performed on five samples of cushion- 
ing materials to evaluate the toxicity of off-gases are 
presented. The samples, provided by the California Bu- 
reau of Home Furnishings, consisted of polyimide, poly- 
urethane, and polychloroprene foams. The NASA-USF 



70 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Human Behavior, Social, and Medical Problems 



toxicity screening method was employed, and is briefly 
described. Test data, which are summarized in tabular 
form, indicate that these more recently introduced cush- 
ioning materials appear to produce comparable or some- 
what less toxic off-gases than previously tested materials 
of the same generic type. 

2015 

GENERATION OF CONSTANT CONCENTRA- 
TIONS OF THERMAL DECOMPOSITION PROD- 
UCTS IN INHALATION CHAMBERS. A COM- 
PARATIVE STUDY WITH A METHOD ACCORD- 
ING TO DIN 53 436. I. MEASUREMENT OF 
CARBON MONOXIDE AND CARBON DIOXIDE 
IN INHALATION CHAMBERS 
Klimisch, H.-J.; Hollander, H.W.M; Thyssen, J. 
Journal of Combustion Toxicology 7:243-256, No- 
vember 1980. 

In the experiment described, the DIN 53 436 method of 
generating thermal decomposition products was em- 
ployed to ascertain if it was possible, in practice, to 
produce constant concentrations of decomposition prod- 
ucts in inhalation chambers in a dynamic, reproducible 
fashion. Animal inhalation toxicology studies require 
such a system. In this experiment, carbon monoxide and 
carbon dioxide were measured as the concentration 
indicators. Details on DIN method, in which plastic and 
wood are pyrolysized and the combustion products diluted 
and fed to an inhalation chamber, are provided. Tests 
were also performed at other laboratories to assess 
reproducibility of results. It was found that the DIN 
method is in fact capable of producing constant concen- 
trations of pyrolysis products with good reproducibility. 
Thus, requirements for inhalation toxicology studies 
involving animals can be met. 

2016 

MODELING OF EXPOSURE TO CARBON MON- 
OXIDE IN FIRES 

Cagliostro, D.E. 

Journal of Combustion Toxicology 7:231-242, No- 
vember 1980. 

Information is presented on a mathematical model 
developed to predict carboxyhemoglobin concentrations 
in the body resulting from short exposure to carbon 
monoxide levels anticipated during escape from aircraft 
fires. Respiratory and circulatory dynamics of absorption 
and distribution of carbon monoxide and carboxyhemo- 
globin are considered in the model. Additionally, predic- 
tions of carboxyhemoglobin concentrations were com- 
pared with experimental values derived from human 
exposures to constant high carbon monoxide levels. These 
predictions fell within 20 percent of the experimental 
values. It was also found that for short exposures, 
transient concentration effects can be predicted. Such 



effects may result in symptoms which could hinder 
escape. The effect of stress was also studied and was 
determined to cause an increase in carboxyhemoglobin 
levels above those experienced in a rest state. These 
increased levels may also affect one's ability to escape. 

C. EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES AND 
FACILITIES 

2017 

PARAMEDIC BURNOUT 

Anon. 

Fire Chief 24(11):21 -33, November 1980. 

The problem of paramedic burnout, described as ". . .a 
syndrome of emotional exhaustion and cynicism that 
frequently occurs among individuals who do 'people- 
work' — who spend considerable time in close encounters 
with others under conditions of chronic tension and 
stress," is investigated. Conditions encountered and solu- 
tions developed in the following cities are discussed in 
detail: Columbus (Ohio); Alexandria (Virginia); Miami 
Beach (Florida); Rockford (Illinois); St. Paul (Minnesota); 
Seattle (Washington); and Los Angeles (California). Five 
broad categories, or objectives, for dealing with the 
problem of burnout in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) 
personnel as determined by the survey results are: careful 
screening of candidates is vital; better communications 
with EMS personnel, fire suppression officers, hospitals 
and emergency room personnel, and the community; 
provision of promotional opportunities for EMS person- 
nel; provision of incentives such as bonus pay; and taking 
steps to reduce stress among paramedics by either reduc- 
ing length of exposure to stress, or by training in how to 
cope with stress. 

Two other moves that management might well consid- 
er are: 1) the establishment of an "old-chief network, to 
provide contacts with peers on a formal or informal basis; 
and 2) keeping in touch with the United States Fire 
Administration, which can provide information on pro- 
grams which could have an impact on local operations. 

d. INJURIES AND FATALITIES 

2018 

DOMESTIC FIRE FATALITIES — WHAT CAN 

BE DONE? 

Anon. 

Fire Surveyor 9(5):22-27, October 1980. 

A report, by Britain's Home Office Scientific Advisory 
Board, on fire fatalities that occurred in private dwellings 
is described. The purpose of the report is stated and the 
source of data, primarily coroners' reports, is noted. A 
statistical background is given, indicating that roughly 
800 residential fire fatalities occur each year. A statistical 
breakdown on the circumstances of death in 171 sample 



71 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Human Behavior, Social, and Medical Problems 



incidents is also given. In addition, an assessment was 
made of the potential effect various fire protection 
measures could have had on the outcome of these sample 
cases. These protective measures include direct protec- 
tion, such as fire detectors, fire safe fabrics, and extin- 
guisher availability, as well as indirect protection such as 
public education campaigns and fire safety inspections. 
According to the analysis, creation of a safer environment 
through product design changes, such as wide spread use 
of fire resistant fabrics, would be the most effective 
protection measure. 

2019 

BURN EPISODES, CLOTHING, AND THE ELD- 
ERLY: A SURVEY OF INPATIENT RECORDS IN 
RHODE ISLAND HOSPITALS 

Avery, C.E. 

Journal of Safety Research 11(3):98-108, Fall 1979. 

Information is presented on a survey conducted to 
determine the number and causes of burn injuries and 
fatalities reported, between 1972 and 1976, for persons 60 



years of age and older treated in Rhode Island hospitals. 
Inpatient records for L36 individuals were examined and 
analyzed. Details on the survey and analysis methods are 
provided and statistical data are presented in tabular 
form. It was found that males were injured more fre- 
quently than females and that frequency increased with 
age for both sexes. The most common cause of burn 
injuries was hot liquids, as in those used for drinking and 
bathing, with smoking-related episodes the second most 
common. Of the smoking-related injuries, those compli- 
cated by involvement of clothing were more frequently 
fatal. Suggestions are presented which could reduce the 
frequency of thermal contacts, thus reducing the injury 
rate. 

e. PHYSIOLOGY 

[No entries] 

f. PSYCHOLOGY 

[No entries] 



CODES, STANDARDS, SAFE HANDLING, IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS 



a. CODES 



b. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION 



2020 

CONSIDERATIONS OF THE PROBLEM OF 

FIRE SAFETY IN BUILDING CODES 

Bruno, A. 

Antincendio 5(8):33-36, August 1980 (Italian). 

The objective of this work was to segregate those 
factors which influence fire safety and to regroup them 
into homogeneous classes. The classes are: 1) factors 
dependent on the characteristics of a potential fire (flame 
temperature, rate of combustion, etc.); 2) factors depen- 
dent on the characteristics of the materials used; 3) 
factors dependent on the function of the constituent 
structural elements and the various sub-systems; 4) 
factors dependent on the geometric characteristics of the 
structural elements; and 5) factors dependent on the 
alarm systems, protective systems, sprinkler systems, etc. 
All such factors need to be addressed in building codes 
and designs. 



2021 

BEWARE THE LOWLY DUMPSTER 

Bowen, J.E. 

Western Fire Journal 32(ll):37-38, November 1980. 

Unsuspecting hazards which can be encountered by 
firefighters while battling dumpster fires are discussed. 
Examples of hazardous materials found in dumpsters 
include a bottle of peroxide-laden ether, car batteries, 
cans of flammable liquid, pesticide bags and cartons, a 
box of shotgun shells, and a parcel labeled "radioactive." 
It is recommended, due to the potential hazards of such 
fires, that the firefighter take the following precautions 
when approaching a dumpster fire: 1) always wear 
protective clothing; 2) use caution when overhauling 
dumpsters; 3) decontaminate personnel if toxic material 
is found during overhaul; and 4) notify the proper 
authorities if hazardous materials are found to have been 
improperly or illegally placed in the dumpster. 



72 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Codes, Standards, Safe Handling, Identification of Hazards 



2022 

HAZFILE: CHANGES ARE NECESSARY IF 

FIRE SERVICE IS TO BENEFIT, SAYS REPORT 

Anon. 

Fire 73(904):233-234, October 1980. 

An evaluation report on Britain's HAZFILE, a comput- 
er-based information system on hazardous substances, is 
reviewed. According to the report, which was prepared by 
the Home Office, the system could provide valuable 
information on hazardous chemicals to local fire brigades, 
but that in its present form it is of limited value. The 
primary problems identified are: the excessive time 
required to retrieve information; the need for regular 
training of operators; a high incidence of lost connection 
to the computer; and the unsuitable and incomplete form 
of the information in the data base. Suggestions are made 
which could alleviate some of these problems. Data on 
retrieval times and costs incurred during a trial period 
are also given and several undesirable features of the 
system, as a result of current administrative procedures, 
are listed. 

2023 

IDENTITY CRISIS: EXPERTS AGREE TO DIS- 
AGREE ON THE NEW DOT HAZARDOUS MATE- 
RIALS IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM 

Stewart, R.A. 

Firehouse 5(9):61-62, 64-66, 70, 72, 92, September 

1980. 

An identification system for hazardous materials, pro- 
posed by the U.S. Department of Transportion, is dis- 
cussed. The system, based on DOT regulation HM-126A, 
would be used to identify hazardous materials during 
shipment and to provide critical information on proper 
handling techniques in the event of an accidental spill. 
The DOT system would use a 4-digit identification num- 
ber, based generally on the United Nations Code, to be 
displayed on shipping papers and containers, and on 
orange-colored panels on tanks, cargo tanks, railroad 
tank cars, and trucks. Reference to the displayed number 
in the support documents would yield the required 
information for the safe handling of the specific material 
involved. Advantages and disadvantages of the system 
are reviewed and compared with the system developed by 
the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 704). 
The NFPA system employs a series of diamond-shaped 
symbols, rating the hazardous material on a scale of one 
to four based on health hazard posed, flammability, and 
reactivity. Advantages and disadvantages of the NFPA 
704 system are also discussed. 



c. SAFE HANDLING OF HAZARDOUS 
MATERIALS 

2024 

HOW UNION PACIFIC MEETS THE HAZARD- 
OUS MATERIALS CHALLENGE 

Wright, C.J. 

Fire Journal 74(6):36-38, 93, November 1980. 

Union Pacific Railroad's approach to safe transport of 
hazardous materials is discussed. Union Pacific has three 
goals regarding hazardous materials. First, every attempt 
is made to prevent accidents from happening by compli- 
ance with various regulations, extensive training of rail 
personnel, and proper maintenance of rail lines and 
rolling stock. Second, should an accident occur, prompt 
professional reaction is provided to minimize the dangers. 
Third and finally, is appropriate clean-up and disposal of 
hazardous materials that have leaked from their contain- 
ers. These goals are met through various preventive 
programs, and in the event of an accident, notification of 
proper authorities, prompt identification of involved 
chemicals, and effective communication between re- 
sponse personnel and other involved groups. Each of 
these activities is reviewed. 

2025 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR RAIL 
TRANSPORTATION OF CLASS A EXPLOSIVES: 
INTERIM REPORT 

Bukowski, R.W. 

National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of 
Commerce, Washington, D.C., NBSIR 80-2170, 30 
pages, November 1980. 

Availability: NTIS 

A research project, initiated to evaluate various protec- 
tive methods to transport Class A explosives by rail, is 
reviewed. The project was funded by the Federal Railroad 
Administration in response to several accidents involving 
fire-induced detonation of military explosives during rail 
shipment. Several methods to protect Class A explosives 
from fire were evaluated and cost-effective approaches 
appropriate for further study were identified. Active 
systems (detection, notification, and extinguishment) and 
passive systems (thermal insulating barriers) were evalu- 
ated regarding cost, feasibility and level of protection 
provided for the major hazard scenarios involved in rail 
shipment of explosives. The passive, thermal barrier 
approach was selected as the most reliable and least 
costly of the options, while still providing an acceptable 
level of protection. Additionally, small- and full-scale 
tests were conducted to obtain performance data on a 
thermal barrier material, and a computer model to 
predict critical area temperatures during a fire was 
developed. Model predictions compare favorably with 



73 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Codes, Standards, Safe Handling, Identification of Hazards 



limited experimental data, although additional experi- 
mental data will be required to refine the model. 

2020 

CHLORINE. LITTLE QUANTITIES MEAN BIG 

DANGER 

Buck, G., Jr. 

Fire Chief 24(10)41-43, October 1980. 

The hazards to firefighters of chlorine, which may be 
present in a garage or shed fire in a residential communi- 
ty, are discussed. Such chlorine is usually chlorine bleach 
used in washing clothes and the chlorine used in swim- 
ming pools. The life hazards of chlorine gas and liquid 
chlorine are described. It is emphasized that a fire 
company's first priority, upon arriving at a fire scene, is 
to make a quick check, or size up, of the area for 
hazardous materials. Firefighting procedures are detailed 
and include: creating a 30-degree fog pattern at a can of 
chlorine to lower the temperature of the contents, there- 
by reducing the amount of toxic gases being produced; 
wearing full protective turnout gear and SCBA; not 
applying water to leaking chlorine containers (chlorine 
and water form hydrochloric acid); and using cross or 
horizontal ventilation to rid the building of chlorine gas. 

2027 

FIRE TEST ON A STORAGE BARREL FILLED 

WITH A MIXTURE OF SODIUM NITRATE AND 

BITUMEN 

Knotik, K.; Leichter, P.; Spalek, K. 

VFDB 29(4):128-133, November 1980 (German). 

A combustion test is described which showed how 
radioactive and/or toxic wastes embedded in a bitumen- 
sodium nitrate matrix can be safely stored under techni- 
cally appropriate conditions. Storage is technically cor- 
rect if interstices and empty spaces between waste 
containers are filled and the surface of the container is 
covered with sand or salt. A 50-liter steel barrel contain- 
ing a sodium nitrate (51.9 wt.%)-bitumen mixture was 
placed in a 200-liter steel barrel and embedded in sand so 
that a 15 cm-high sand layer covered the lid of the inner 
barrel. The test consisted of igniting, in open air, a 3 cm- 
high gasoline layer above the sand surface in the outer 
barrel and recording temperatures of the mixture and 
sand during gasoline burning (195 minutes). The maxi- 
mum recorded temperature was 34°C at 15 cm below the 
sand surface. Thus, the storage simulation test in open 
space with air input confirmed that bitumen cannot be 
ignited under these conditions because sodium nitrate 
cannot decompose and yield oxygen at 34°C. 



2028 

PROTECTION THROUGH SPRINKLERS: EVO- 
LUTION OF CONCEPTS, NEW INSTALLATION 
SPECIFICATIONS, NEW METHOD OF INSUR- 
ANCE RATING 
Anon. 

Face au Risque 1979(157):45-49, November 1979 
(French). 

The essential modifications in French specifications for 
sprinkler installation, and parallel modifications in the 
procedure of rating establishments with sprinklers, for 
the purpose of fire insurance, are discribed. The 1979 
modifications to the rating rules were based on the new 
concept that protection level must vary as a function of 
the risk nature and must depend little on industrial 
activity. Accordingly, the scale of rates was reduced for 
protected risks (with sprinklers) and too low rates for 
small risks were eliminated. Specifications for sprinkler 
installation were also modified to make the number and 
nature of water supply sources dependent on the number 
of sprinklers needed for a given risk degree. The new 
method of rate calculation uses a formula including a 
variable and a fixed rate. It is anticipated that the new 
rules will contribute to the improvement of fire protec- 
tion by sprinklers of small and medium-size businesses. 



2029 

ALCOHOL STORAGE SAFETY 

Anon. 

Face au Risque 1980(159):27-31, 

(French). 



January 1980 



Conclusions drawn from a study on alcohol storage, 
conducted by the French Directorate of Civil Security in 
1979, are reported. Two families of alcohols were consid- 
ered: 1) brandy or whiskey-type called "distilled alcoholic 
beverages"; and 2) industrial alcohols called "polar liq- 
uids." The class 2 liquids include alcohols, aldehydes, 
ketones, acids, and esters. Recommendations are given for 
storage of class 1 alcohols that would minimize the risks 
from high flame, explosion, and outflow of burning 
alcohol. Priority objectives of fire control of class 1 
alcohols are defined, and conclusions are drawn relative 
to their fire risk in warehouses. In the case of class 2 
alcohols, a bibliographic search indicated the need for 
special "anti-alcoholic" (polyvalent) emulsifiers for fire 
control. All alcohols in the second category are divided 
into four classes according to the more or less difficult 
extinction of their fires. A test protocol is proposed to 
determine the class of a specific polar liquid and the 
minimum rate of application of a polyvalent emulsifier. 



74 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Codes, Standards, Safe Handling, Identification of Hazards 



2030 

A LIFTING CART FOR HAZARDOUS ATMO- 
SPHERE AND HANDLING OF FLAMMABLE 
PRODUCTS 

Anon. 

Face au Risque 1980(160): 18-20, February 1980 

(French). 

Fire protection of all kinds of self-propelled lifting carts 
used in atmospheres containing flammable gas, vapor, or 
dust; or for the handling of flammable products, is 
discussed. Examples are given of protective equipment for 
heat-engine driven carts and electric carts. The latter 
must be fireproofed either by keeping electric parts under 
an inert gas (such as nitrogen) pressure, or enclosing 
them in a very rigid container with air openings through 
a series of baffles. French regulations concern only the 
use of certain parts of a cart and not the whole lifting 
cart. Also, the uses of electric materials in underground 
galleries, crude oil-processing, and pyrotechnics are regu- 
lated. Protection of circulation is compulsory in the oil 
refinery zones where combustible gases or vapors may 
develop in normal operation. Only deflagration-proof 
motor carts are recommended, which must be provided 
with adequate extinguishers and be checked periodically. 

2031 

HANDLING LIQUID NATURAL GAS INCI- 
DENTS 

Slaughter, H.C. 

Fire CAm?/"24(9):34-35, September 1980. 

Firefighting methods and extinguishing agents that 
will be effective in suppressing a liquified natural gas 
(LNG) fire are presented, and various physical properties 
of LNG are discussed. LNG is composed of approximately 
87 percent methane, 8 1/2 percent ethane, and 2 1/2 
percent propane. It is stored and transported below its 
boiling point of -260°F and at a vapor pressure of zero. 
The expansion ratio of the liquid to a gas is about 600 to 1, 
which requires the evacuation of large areas in the event 
of an accidental spill. Because of the extremely low 
temperature of the liquid, water is ineffective as an 
extinguishing agent. Chemical extinguishants such as 
potassium bicarbonate (Purple K) or sodium bicarbonate, 
the most effective, work by breaking down the chain 
reaction necessary for combustion. LNG will ignite and 
burn readily but will not explode because of the extreme- 
ly cold temperature of the gas. If the leaking LNG cannot 
be stopped it is best to allow it to burn, if that is possible. 
Extreme caution is urged when dealing with LNG emer- 
gencies. 



2032 

THE CONCLUSION OF A TRAINING EXER- 
CISE: THOUSANDS CAN GET KILLED IN 
CHLORINE ACCIDENT 

Anon. 

Brandforsvar 17(5):23-24, May 1980 (Swedish). 

A training exercise in Kalmar, Sweden in 1979 shows 
that a chlorine accident could have effects that would not 
be controllable with the resources that the fire protection 
services and the police have available in Sweden today. It 
was also found that more education and training exer- 
cises are required. More knowledge about the characteris- 
tics and effects of certain chemical substances is also 
needed. The most effective way to limit the damage of a 
chlorine accident is to broadcast the information tbrough 
the radio system, which requires that the police and the 
fire stations have loud sirens that can give specific signals 
that urge people to listen to the radio. Areas that are 
threatened by the gas should be evacuated. Hospitals 
should be prepared to provide intensive care and respira- 
tor care. Trains that transport dangerous material should 
be equipped with alarm systems. 

2033 

AN INCREASING RISK FOR GAS ACCIDENTS 

Anon. 

Brandforsvar 17(5):26-30, May 1980 (Swedish). 

The British Health and Safety Commission has ap- 
pointed a commission for the investigation of the risks 
associated with large-scale process industries. The first 
chapter of its second report is discussed. The report 
presents proposals for regulations for the handling of 
dangerous gases and liquids. It is proposed that a risk 
analysis should be undertaken when the amount of 
dangerous substance exceeds certain minimum levels. 
The following kinds of accidents are given special atten- 
tion: the discharge of poisonous gases in large amounts, 
hazardous even at a large distance; extremely toxic 
material that even in amounts of a few kilograms would 
produce lethal effects at a large distance; and toxic liquids 
and gases that may form large gas clouds that may ignite 
and explode. 

2034 

HOUSTON F.D. HAZ-MAT TEAM FINDS ACTIVI- 
TY RISES AS REPUTATION SPREADS 
Nailen, R.L. 
Fire Engineering 133(12):24-27, December 1980. 

Information is presented on the organization and 
operation of the Houston Fire Department Hazardous 
Material Team. The team is an integral component of the 
department's rescue company, having six crew members 
on duty 24 hours a day. The team is equipped with two 
vehicles: a heavy rescue unit and a hazardous materials 



75 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Codes, Standards, Safe Handling, Identification of Hazards 



van. Details on the equipment and tools used by the team 
are also provided and the function of each device is 
explained. Several incidents are recounted where the 
team has successfully contained hazardous material 
spills. The need for cleanup capability, hazardous materi- 
als ownership problems, and the training programs which 
have been conducted are also discussed. 

d. STANDARDS 

2035 

CURRENT THINKING AND DEVELOPMENTS 

IN FIRE TESTING IN EUROPE 

Malhotra, H.L. 

Fire and Materials 4(4):177-184, December 1980. 

The historical background of fire testing in the United 
Kingdom is examined briefly, and the current European 
position, as exemplified by activities in the European 
Economic Community (EEC) member countries, the coun- 
tries of Scandinavia, and those of Eastern Europe, is 
outlined. Consideration is given to the role of the Interna- 
tional Standards Organization (ISO) and the changing 
approach to the development of fire tests. Advantages and 
limitations of various European fire tests on ignition, 
flammability, heat release, and structural fire resistance 
are discussed. An assessment of fire safety, incorporating 
regulations, fire tests, risk assessment, and cost effective- 
ness of different measures is presented as the rational 
approach for groups interested in international fire 
safety. Specific efforts of groups interested in "harmoni- 
zation" of fire protection regulations are detailed for 
European, Eastern and Scandanavian countries. Fire test 
specifications which will probably be issued by the ISO 
over the next few years are listed, and the issue of 
toxicity, which will take longer to resolve, is reviewed. 

Reference is made to the long-term research needs for 
physical and mathematical modeling of fire phenomena. 
Appendices list: 1) European fire research laboratories; 2) 
standard fire tests in use in EEC countries; 3) a selected 
list of ISO standards, recommendations and drafts of fire 
tests; and 4) European and international organizations 
having an interest in fire tests and harmonization. 

2036 

DEVELOPMENT OF TEXTILE FLAMMABILITY 

STANDARDS IN AUSTRALIA 

Hoschke, B.N. 

Journal of Consumer Product Flammability 7:133- 

146, September 1980. 

A review of the historical development of textile 
flammability standards in Australia is presented, with 
emphasis on the evolution of standards for children's 
nightclothes. Selected test data for various fabric materi- 
als are also presented. It is noted that most of the 
standards development effort has, to date, been focused 



on children's nightclothes; however, emphasis is now 
shifting toward textiles used in buildings, such as cur- 
tains, upholstery, bedding, and carpets. Currently pro- 
posed national and international test methods for appar- 
el, furnishings, and carpets are discussed. 

2037 

SI UNITS IN FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEER- 
ING. 1980 REPORT OF THE MEASUREMENT OF 
FIRE PHENOMENA COMMITTEE 

Anon. 

Society of Fire Protection Engineers, Boston, MA, 

46 pages, March 1, 1980. 

The International System of Units, or SI Units, devel- 
oped for use by practicing fire protection engineers and 
other interested professionals are reviewed. These stand- 
ardized engineering terms, units, and symbols have been 
selected to facilitate, on an international basis, the 
exchange of information between professionals and to 
strengthen the educational process. The historical devel- 
opment of standardized units of measurement is briefly 
reviewed and notation conventions are explained. The 
main body of the report is divided into three parts. The 
first part lists and notes typical applications for SI units 
used in the fire protection engineering field. Part Two 
lists ten commonly used constants for general use, and 
Part Three describes SI units relevant to specific areas of 
fire protection such the ignition process, propagation, fire 
resistance, and smoke and gas production. Appendices 
provide tables for converting units from one system of 
measurement to another. 

2038 

BACKGROUND TO SPRINKLER DESIGN AND 

THE USE OF PUMPS 

Cresswell, F.L. 

Fire Surveyor 9(6):39-45, December 1980. 

Background information used in the formulation of the 
29th Edition of the British FOC sprinkler rules is dis- 
cussed. A review of sprinkler performance studies was 
combined with theoretical calculations and results from 
full-scale fire tests to validate the need for densities of 5 
mm/min. in assumed areas of operation. An explanation 
of derived required performance characteristics of auto- 
matic pumps for sprinkler systems is graphically present- 
ed. Examples of sprinkler calculations for an ordinary 
hazard system pump supply, an extra high hazard system 
with precalculated pipework, an extra high hazard sys- 
tem pump supply via precalculated tables, and an extra 
high hazard system (hydraulically calculated) are given. 

2039 

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

Ward, R.B. 

Fire Prevention 1980(139):25-26, December 1980. 



76 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Standards and test methods being developed in the 
United Kingdom and elsewhere are described. Coverage 
includes the latest published British Standard on the 
design of portable fire extinguishers; a new British code 



Insurance, Economics of Loss and Prevention 

on extinguisher use; draft standards for disposable extin- 
guishers; and standards, on plastic bodied and fixed fire 
extinguishers, developed by the Comite Europeen de 
Normalisation (CEN). 



INSURANCE, ECONOMICS OF LOSS AND PREVENTION 



a. INSURANCE 

2040 

TAKING ACTION AGAINST ARSON 

Anon. 

Journal of American Insurance 56(3):7-8, Fall 1980. 

The role of the new Insurance Committee for Arson 
Control (ICAC), which was created to help fight arson, is 
discussed. On the state and Federal level, ICAC is helping 
to pass legislation. Immunity laws on arson reporting 
allow insurers and law enforcement agencies to share 
information about suspicious fires. ICAC is also helping to 
eliminate loopholes in state penal codes which allowed 
arsonists to evade prosecution. Local anti-arson efforts 
are encouraged with the committee acting as a clearing- 
house, providing information and publications. A subcom- 
mittee was set up to collect data, and to push for 
government legislation to permanently elevate arson to a 
Part I crime. Tighter reporting requirements would 
increase the accuracy, quality and quantity of arson data. 
The ICAC encourages insurers to screen fire risks more 
carefully, and with selective inspections on arson-prone 
risks, spare the honest policy holders unnecessary delays 
in obtaining coverage. 

2041 

BUILDING REPLACEMENT COSTS AND IN- 
SURANCE 

Courtney, T. 

Fire Surveyor 9(6):34-37, December 1980. 

Factors which have to be considered in setting the 
appropriate insurance level for buildings in the United 
Kingdom are discussed. A Cost Analysis Form, related 
publications, architects fees, public authorities clause, 
debris removal costs and building cost inflation are all 
reviewed. Further, explanations on the nature of indem- 
nity and reinstatement building insurance methods are 
given. The main objective of any estimate is seen as the 
need to arrive at a sum insured for a structure that will 
satisfy the insurers and also the loss adjusters. 

b. LOSSES 

[No entries] 



c. RESTORATION 

[No entries] 

d. RISK MANAGEMENT 

2042 

FIRE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS AND THE 

PROBLEM OF FIRE RISK ASSESSMENT 

Harmathy, T.Z. 

Fire and Materials 4(4): 173-176, December 1980. 

Fire risk assessment, which is dependent on the ability 
to develop a set of complimentary performance standards 
along with an algorithm for calculating risk from the test 
results is discussed. Fire tests today are difficult to 
interpret and tend to focus on a particular segment of the 
complex fire problem. No coherent method for piecing 
together all the test results and their meanings is 
available for the assessment of the potential risk in- 
volved. Two types of tests are discussed: 1) property tests 
which are conducted to determine the properties of a 
material, and 2) performance tests which seek to deter- 
mine the behavior of products under a given set of 
conditions. The obvious need for the standardization of 
performance tests is cited. Fire risk is defined as the 
probability of occurrence, times the probability of expo- 
sure, times the potential for harm. The potential for harm 
is the only factor that can be determined from product 
testing. 

The development of a sound method for assessing 
products with respect to their intrinsic potential for harm 
is a prerequisite for any attempt to proceed towards a 
coherent fire risk assessment philosophy. 

2043 

IS AMERICA STILL BURNING? IS MINNESO- 
TA? 

Collins, W. 

Minnesota Fire Chief 17(7): 16, 47, 48, November- 
December 1980. 

Information on Minnesota's progress and problems in 
promoting fire safety in the state is presented. Recom- 
mendations from a report prepared several years ago by 
the National Commission on Fire Prevention and Control, 
"America Burning," are listed and several relevant 
accomplishments by the state are described. For example, 



77 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Insurance, Economics of Loss and Prevention 

through organizational changes, the State Fire Marshal 
Division can now provide fire investigation, code enforce- 
ment, and educational assistance. Improvements in fire 
service education and training are also noted. Problems 
still remaining include public apathy toward fire preven- 
tion, and providing fire safety for special populations such 
as the very young, the elderly, and the handicapped. 

2044 

CATASTROPHE PLANNING OF COMPANIES 

Hagglund, A. 

Brandforsvar 17(2):4-8, February 1980 (Swedish). 

The potential risk for catastrophies in a large company 
is associated with its vulnerability, the technical risks, 
protective measures, the financial status of the company, 
etc. Planning for action in the event of a large catastro- 
phy, as well as preventive measures, should be required 
and a risk analysis should be undertaken. The responsi- 
bility of society with regard to the security of the 
company should be determined through discussions with 
the authorities. The company needs to have certain 
resources available to be able to control the extent of 
damage before the municipal resources take over, for 
example a company fire service. To limit the extent of a 
catastrophy, such as a fire, buildings should be divided by 
means of fire sectioning walls, and sprinkling systems 
should be installed. Three important elements of catastro- 
phy planning are: acute actions, (evaluation of people, 
efforts to limit material damage and the effects thereof on 
the production and the environment); restoration; and 
training and drills. 



The fire engineers of the insurance companies and the 
municipal fire chiefs are best able to tackle problems 
regarding catastrophy planning. Other specialists can be 
consulted, but it is important not to make do with 
solutions presented by people who are experts only in 
some limited area or who only have superficial knowl- 
edge. 

e. SALVAGE 

2045 

MINIMIZING THE LOSS. THE FIRE SERVICE 

TASK 

McCarthy, T. 

Fire Surveyor 9(6):28-32, December 1980. 

The role of the Fire Service, specialized salvage corps, 
and sprinkler systems in minimizing fire losses in the 
United Kingdom is investigated. As indicated, reduction 
of fire losses is the responsibility of many groups, includ- 
ing the fire service, local authorities, insurance compa- 
nies, fire protection engineers, and others. The Fire 
Services Act of 1947 emphasizes fire brigade loss manage- 
ment; however, the recent government paper on Future 
Fire Policy suggests salvage activities by fire brigades are 
limited due to economic considerations. Activities of the 
salvage corps of three major British cities are explained 
and the effect of sprinklers upon losses is considered. It is 
concluded that the fire brigade can, in spite of manpower 
limitations, contribute valuable advice on fire prevention 
and loss reduction to building owners and occupants. 



STATISTICS 



2046 

INITIAL MOVES MADE TO SET UP A WORLD 

FIRE STATISTICS CENTRE 

Wilmot, T. 

Fire Protection 43(518):15-16, September 1980. 

A seminar was held by the Geneva Association in 
March 1980, to discuss the possibility of further action on 
world fire statistics. In attendance were experts from 
various countries and representatives of international 
organizations such as the United Nations Economic 
Commission for Europe, the International Council for 
Building Research, the International Organization for 
Standardization, the World Health Organization, and 
Euralarm/Eurofeu. A major misconception dispelled at 
the start of the seminar was that countries might be 
asked to submit fire statistics on an internationally 
standardized basis. It was stated that this would not be 
necessary since standardization is accomplished by mak- 



ing additions or subtractions to take account of the 
different national nuances in the statistics. The Geneva 
Association also expressed their belief that the progress 
in setting up the proposed World Fire Statistics Center 
should be slow but steady. Improvements in Finnish, 
French, German, and Holland fire reporting, the massive 
Swedish fire research budget, and the cost of fire in the 
USA are noted. 

2047 

FIREFIGHTER INJURIES IN THE UNITED 

STATES DURING 1979 

Karter, M.J. 

Fire Command 47(12):25-29, December 1980. 

A comprehensive presentation of firefighter injury 
statistics for 1979 is given. Study methods, causes, nature 
of injuries, various injury rates, and methods of improv- 
ing safety are discussed and illustrated by figures, tables, 



78 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Statistics 



and photographs. Key findings included: 95,800 injuries 
occurred during 1979, a decrease of 5.2 percent from 1978; 
11,350 injuries required hospitalization; 1150 firefighters 
began receiving job-related disability pensions in larger 
cities; 71. G percent of all injuries occurred during fire- 
ground operations; and the major cause of injuries was 
exposure to fire products. Suggestions for better manage- 
ment practice and application of existing technology to 
further reduce the injury rate are also listed. 

2048 

THE 1979 FIRES 

DeMython, J.-L. 

Face au Risque 1980(162):37-44, April 1980 (French). 

Statistical data are presented on the 1970-1978 evolu- 
tion of the number, monetary cost, and cost in human 
lifes from all fires in France. In the cited period, the total 



number of fires, except those of forests and brush, had 
increased steadily at an annual rate of about 4.5 percent. 
The total monetary cost of all fires, except those in 
agriculture, had increased by 8-9 percent per year. The 
cost in human lives was stable at the level of 270 i 10 
percent dead per year. The total number and monetary 
cost of 1979 fires in France are estimated to be higher 
than in 1978. The 1977-78 statistics showed that most 
industrial fires occurred in the highly industrialized 
regions. The 1973-77 evolution is shown of industrial fires 
in each branch, and for fires in establishments with 
public admission (commercial centers, restaurants, ho- 
tels, educational facilities, etc.). Principal causes of the 
latter fires are cited. The number of arsons in the 1972-78 
period was stable. In 1979, that number was 7.1 percent of 
total arsons costing more than 5 million francs. The list of 
1979 fires causing more than 5 million francs of total 
damage is appended. 



79 



Author Index 



A 

Aggarwal, S.K 1753 

Ahituv, N 1746 

Albinger. P.E 1976 

Alger, K.W 1798 

Allender, P.J 1708 

Alletto, W.C 1965 

Alvares, N.J 1954 

Ames, S.A 1785 

Amore, P 1968, 1969 

Andersen, W.H 1776, 1814 

Anderson, N 1936 

Anderson, OS 1907 

Anderson, W.B 1966 

Ansart, F 1852 

Avery, C.E 2019 

B 

Babrauskas, V 1806 

Bahrke, M.S 1964 

Bailey, D.W 1889 

Baker, R.D 1960 

Baltz, D 1933 

Banks, S.W 1715 

Banna, S.M 1794 

Barber, J.R 1887 

Bayles, J.J 1977 

Beland, B 1816 

Beason, D.G 1954 

Bell, J.R 1717 

Benerito, R.R 1799 

Berenblut, B.J 1891 

Berlin, G.N 1811, 1903 

Berman, 1746 

Bernstein, M 1942 

Best, R 1718, 1895 

Beyrels, J.R 1906 

Birky, M.M 2007 

Block, 1 1827 

Boardway, R.M 1864 

Bode, H.B 1953 

Bohl, P 1863 

Bond, J 1920 

Bormann, M 1726 

Bout, B.J 1907 

Bowen, J.E 1756, 2021 

Boyd, J.D 1987 

Boyer, L 1750 

Brace, T.R 2004 

Branch, M.C 1794 

Brauman, S.K 1783, 1797 

Bray, K.N.C 1831 

Breese, J.N 1868 

Brogden, C 1740 



Brown, G.A 1760 

Brown, J.R 1859 

Bruno, A 2020 

Buck, G., Jr 2026 

Buck, R.J 1840, 1886 

Bukowski, R.W 1904, 2025 

Bunton, D.R 1815 

Burkell, GJ 1929 

Burry, P 1850 

Bush, W.B 1771 

Butterworth, G.J 1854 

Byun, D.J 1880 

c 

Cagliostro, D.E 2016 

Campbell, GA 1928 

Canavan, J 1959 

Capper, R 1843 

Cardoza, J.T 1951 

Carter, R.E 2006 

Cashman, J.R 1926, 1927 

Chaillot, H 1758 

Champion, M 1777 

Chen, I.J 1783 

Cherry, S.M 1748 

Childs, J 1745 

Chitty, R 1805 

Chung, J.Y 1988 

Clark, B.A 1845 

Cluzel, D 1749 

Coffee, T.P 1752 

Coleman, R 1974 

Collins, W 2043 

Cooksey, P.N 1733, 1741, 1890 

Cooper, D 1898 

Corlett, R.C 1830 

Courtney, T 2041 

Cox, G 1805 

Crawford, J 1738 

Cresswell, F.L , 2038 

Cribley, C.E 1979 

D 

Dawson, T.W 1931, 1956, 

1957, 1958 

Day, T 1825 

Deacon, F.L 1896 

DeCicco, P.R 1918 

Demers, D.P 1717 

DeMython, J.-L 2048 

Dick, W.P.A 1892 

Ditzel, P 1978 

Donato, M 1813 



Dowling, P.D 1854 

Dutt, A 1903 

Dwyer, R.L 2005 

E 

Eicher, W.J 1772 

Estepp, M.H 1938 

Evans, D.D 1819 

Eysser, H.J 1971 

F 

Fang, J.B 1866, 1868 

Favro, P.C 1924 

Fendell, F.E 1771 

Fink, S.F 1771 

Fiorentini, C 1853 

Firenze, R.J 1960 

Floren, T.M 1963 

Floryan, D.E 1774 

Foehl, J.M 1919, 1943 

Freudenheim, B 1996 

Frick, G 1902 

G 

Gee, M 1915 

Gillespie, F.L 1776 

Gluck, D.G 1824 

Gonzalez, D.J 1884 

Granito, J 1961 

Gray, R.J 1914 

Greenberg, J.B 1808 

Groah, M.L 1990 

Gross, D 1710 

Grubits, S.J. . 1788, 1789, 1790, 1820 
Gupta, S.M 1903 

H 

Hagglund, A 2044 

Hagan, J.R 1824 

Harkleroad, M 1817 

Harmathy, T.Z 2042 

Harper, R.J., Jr 1800 

Harridge, J.L 1984 

Harrison, A 1950 

Harwood, B 1839 

Hatcher, R.G 1949 

Hattori, T 1877 

Heimerl, J.M 1752 

Heine, M 1773 

Held, B.J 1954, 1955 

Herpol, C 2011 

Herzog, G.R 1985 



80 



Author Index 



Heskestad, G 1855 

Hilado, C.J. . 1768, 1782, 1786, 1793, 
1796, 1826, 2009, 2010, 2013, 2014 

Hinojosa, 1799 

Hipchen, D.E 1824 

Hodgkin, A.F 1755 

Hollan, M.E 1977 

Hollander, H.W.M 2015, 2012 

Horan, K 1939 

Horsfall, J 1720, 1801 

Hoschke, B.N 2036 

Hubner, H 1787 

Hughes, R.K 1744 

Huttlinger, P.A. ...1768, 1782, 1786, 

1793, 1796, 1826, 2010, 2013 

Hyre, T.C 1722 

I 

Iida, M 1879 

Ingham, J.D 1802 

Isman, W.E 1986 

Issen, L.A 1865 

Istratov, A.G 1778 

Istvan, S.M 1904 

J 

Jarboe, T 1937 

Johnson, J.E 1883 

Juniper, L.A 1832 

K 

Karter, M.J 2047 

Kennedy, J.T 1988 

Kidin, N.I 1778 

Klimisch, H.-J 2008, 2012, 2015 

Knotik, K 2027 

Knystautas, R 1813 

L 

Laursen, A 1844 

Law, C.K 1770 

Le Guenec, N 1849 

LeBlanc, L 1724 

Lee, S.C 1765 

Leichter, P 2027 

Lennmalm, B 1837 

Levin, B.C 2007 

Levine, R.S 1829, 1867 

Levoyer, J 1707 

Libby, P.A 1831 

Loader, K 1795 

Ludford, L 1982 



M 

MacGregor, P 1922 

Mackenroth, J.R 1953 

Maclean, A.D 1851 

Maguire, H.M 1742 

Malhotra, H.L 2035 

Mallard, W.G 1812 

Mallory, H.D 1762 

Marchant, E.W 1712, 1834 

Martin, K.G 1820 

Martinez, I.M 1748 

Matthews, R.B 1878 

Matza, M 2000 

McCaffery, B.J 1817 

McCallum, D 1842 

McCarthy, T 2045 

McGee, K.M 1744 

McSwain, J.A 1964 

Miles, G.M 1874 

Mitani, T 1757 

Miyasaka, K 1770 

Moen, 1.0 1813 

Mohan, J.J 1970 

Moliere, M 1763 

Moore, D.A 1916 

Moore, G.H 1736, 1743 

Moulen, A.W 1788, 1789, 

1790, 1820 

Mowrer, D.W 1885 

Mueller, W.A 1802 

Mulrine, J.F 1729, 1732 

Murphey, R.M 1796 

Murphy, R.M 2009 

Murtagh, M 1911 

N 

Nailen, R.L 1873, 1894, 2034 

Neale, R 1716 

Nelson, G.L 1774 

Nicholson, A.J.C 1761 

Nickey, B 1888 

Nober, E.H 1841 

o 

O'Connor, J.S 1964 

Oettli, E 1714 

Ohlemiller, T.J 1804 

Olcomendy, E.M 2014 

Oliver, L 1737, 1739 

Onnermark, B 1862 

Orzeszko, A 1773 

P 

Paabo, M 2007 

Parkan, C 1746 



Patterson, W.J 1921 

Peacock, R.D 1725, 1912, 1913 

Peirce, H 1841 

Pendergrast, R.F 1847 

Pering, G.A 1775 

Perkins, C 1891 

Pettersson, 1784 

Podgers, J 1999 

Potter, J.M 1759 

Pourprix, M 1763 

Pratt, B.T 1887 

Prusaczyk, J.E 1864 

Przybyla, L 1882 

Purdie, R.K 1706 

Q 

Quenzel, K -H 1833 

Quintiere, J.G 1817 

R 

Raftery, M.M 1785 

Reilly, W.W 1802 

Rhys, J.A 1769 

Rider, A.0 2003 

Riley, N 1759 

Rochat, F 1704 

Rogers, F.E 1804 

Romanenkov, I.G 1747 

Roux, G 1763 

Rucker, M.H 1744 

Rudd, G.T 1735 

Ruiz, E 1912 

Rule, C.H 1932 

Ryderman, A 1861 

s 

Saly, A.J 1980, 1981, 1994 

Schenck, P.K 1812 

Schilling, R.A 1875 

Schneider, A.L 1809 

Schwartz, W.G 1926, 1927 

Sclafani, J.R 1876 

Scott, A 1897 

Scott, A.H 1893 

Sere, E 1962 

Seth, B 1753 

Sirignano, W.A 1753 

Skolnik, A.D 1870 

Slaughter, H.C 2031 

Smith, C.A 1767 

Smith, L.W 1734 

Smyth, K.C 1812 

Soignet, D.M 1799 

Spalek, K 2027 

Springer, G.S 1775 

Stack, T.A 1858 



81 



Author Index 



Stapelfeldt, J.P 1723 Zeronian, S.H 1798 

Stewart, R. A 2023 Zorgman, H 1822 

Stone, J.P 1830 Zwingmann, R 1836 

Stone, L 1827 

Swingler, D.L 1761 

Sylvia, D 1709 

Szabat, J.F 1772 

T 

Tewarson, A 1781, 1810, 1823 

Thomas, D.A 1998 

Thomas, P.H 1818, 1821 

Thomson, R.R 1941 

Thyssen, J 2012, 2015 

Tichy, H 1975 

Ticknor, J.M 1967 

Tien, C.L 1765 

Torres-Pereira, R 1912 

Townley, J.P 1908 

Treubig, R.J 1888 

Twilt, L 1822 

u 

Usemann, K.W 1838 

V 

Vallera, J.J 1754 

van der Walt, N.T 1907 

Van Dijk, H.A.L 1822 

Vandevelde, P 1807 

Vines, T 1972 

w 

Walker, A.G 1780 

Wall, T.F 1832 

Ward, R.B 2039 

Warnke, E 1952 

Well, A 1841 

West, W.T 1991 

White, D 1983 

Wilde, D.G 1779 

Williams, F.A 1757 

Williams, F.W 1830 

Wilmot, T 2046 

Woodman, D 1992 

Wooley, W.D 1785 

Wright, C.J 2024 

Y 

Yeadon, D.A 1800 



Zeldovich, Y.B 1751, 1778 

82 



Subject Index 



A 

ACCIDENTS 

fireworks-related 1733 

hazardous materials rail transport 

program 2024 

storage facility collapse 1895 

AEROSOLS 

detection tests 1763 

fire hazards 1792 

AIR-HANDLING SYSTEMS 

air filter fire testing 1790 

flame spread testing 1789 

smoke vents in multistory 

buildings 1833 

AIRCRAFT 

aerial firefighting 1978 

carbon monoxide exposure 2016 

fire hazards 1720, 1801 

forest firefighting rescue 1974 

postcrash fire simulator 1852 

ALARM SYSTEMS 

European manufacturers 

association 1707 

fire detection by 

microprocessors 1851 

French centralized detection . . . 1849 

microcomputer-based fire/gas pro- 
tection system 1840 

microcomputer monitoring 1842 

ALCOHOL 

French storage study 2029 

ANALYTICAL METHODS 

apparatus performance specifica- 
tions 1945 

fire prevention effectiveness .... 1888 

fire risk assessment 2042 

international units of 

measurement 2037 

laser tomography 1750 

mandatory fitness program 1964 

Seattle arson study update 2004 

ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS 

animal selection 2009 

furnishing materials toxicity . . . 2013 

inhalation chambers 2008, 2015 

toxicity comparisons 2012 

APPARATUS (SEE ALSO: 

BREATHING APPARATUS; 
EQUIPMENT; HOSES) 

European fire departments 1966 



extended use application 1736 

extinguishing agent injection 

system 1977 

fire ropes comparison 1967 

firefighting aircraft 1978 

fluidized fuel-bed combustors . . . 1755 
performance specification 

guide 1944, 1945, 1946, 

1947, 1948 

ARCHITECTURE (SEE: 
BUILDING DESIGN) 

ARSON 

current issues 1995 

firesetter profile 2002, 2003 

Florida's 1979 law 1734 

French statistics, 1970-1979 2048 

insurance industry 2040 

insurance investigators 2001 

juvenile firesetters 1987, 1989 

legal cases 1991, 1997, 1998 

legislation 1992 

photographic investigation tech- 
niques 1951 

police involvement in Part I 

crime 2005 

prevention ....1993, 1996, 1999, 2000 

restaurant fire 1990 

San Francisco fire 1715 

Santa Barbara Fire/Arson Investi- 
gators Association 1988 

Seattle socio/economic study 

update 2004 

Uniform Crime Reports reclassifica- 
tion 1994 

United States statistics 2006 

AUSTRALIA 

air filter fire testing 1789, 1790 

combustible wall linings tests . . 1820 

grassland fires 1887 

textile flammability standards . 2036 

AUSTRIA 

bakery plant fire 



BIBLIOGRAPHIES 

smoke and smoke 
suppressants 



1975 



AUTOMOBILES 

catalytic converter fire 
hazards 



1924 



B 



BIOENGINEERING 

head-cooling device ... 



1793 



1953 



BELGIUM 

combustion toxicology testing ..2011 
electrical cable heat-release 

criteria 1807 



BREATHING APPARATUS 

closed-circuit SCBA tests 1954 

comparative testing 1952 

facial hair problems 1955 

BUDGETING 

Federal facility construction 

impact 1926, 1927 

fire service reorganization 1706 

BUILDING DESIGN 

architects' fire protection education 

1838 

fire protection 1836 

fire safety 1811, 1835 

fire-stop testing 1882 

smoke vents in multistory 

buildings 1833 

sprinklers 1856 

BUILDING MATERIALS 

aluminum roofing material 1837 

foamed plastic insulation fire 

tests 1824 

German research institute fire 1726 
insulation effect on room fires 1864 

Smoke production research 1822 

toxicity testing 2011 

wood 1775, 1788 

BUILDING STRUCTURES (SEE 
ALSO: GARAGES; HIGH- 
RISE BUILDINGS; 
HOSPITALS; HOTELS; 
NURSING HOMES; OFFICE 
BUILDINGS; OFFSHORE 
PLATFORMS; PUBLIC 
BUILDINGS; 
RESIDENTIAL 
BUILDINGS; SCHOOLS; 
SHOPPING CENTERS; 
WAREHOUSES) 
architectural fire-safe design ...1836 

basement fires 1868 

cribs in room fire tests 1817 

disaster planning 2044 

fire safety 1710, 1834, 2020 

French sprinkler regulations . . . 2028 
German research institute fire 1726 
joint US-USSR seminar 1867 



83 



Subject Index 



organizational fire protection .1900 
replacement cost for insurance lev- 
els 2041 

Soviet Union fire safety 

design 1747 

sprayed-on fireproofing 1870 

storage facilities 1895 

supermarket fires 1721 

two-level fire protection 1883 

BURN INJURIES 

Rhode Island hospital survey ..2019 

c 

CALIFORNIA 

furniture flammability survey . 1744 

Rialto Fire Department 

reorganization 1706 

San Francisco apartment building 
fire 1715 

Santa Barbara Fire/Arson Investi- 
gators Association 1988 

Santa Clara hazardous chemical di- 
saster plan 1894 

CANADA 

Manitoba forest fire 1974 

Montreal fire incident 1718 

CARBON DIOXIDE 
EXTINGUISHERS 

soda-acid reaction 1880 

static electricity hazard 1854 

CARBON MONOXIDE 

exposure in aircraft fires 2016 

fire retardants effect 1786 

CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN 

blood levels 2016 

CEILINGS 

flame spread 1806 

CELLULAR PLASTICS 

combustion toxicology 2007 

fire testing 1824 

off-gases 2014 

CELLULOSIC MATERIALS 

insulation smolder 

characteristics 1804 

CHILDREN 

fire safety marketing 

strategies 1741 

juvenile firesetters 1989 

televised fire safety 1742 

COATINGS 

fabric flame-retardant 

backcoating 1803 



heat resistant paints 1767 

CODES 

building fire safety 1834, 1835, 

2020 

COMBUSTIBLE GASES (SEE 

ALSO: LIQUIFIED 

NATURAL GAS) 

BLEVE causes 1791 

fire-ball spectrums 1762 

flame plume analysis 1805 

United Kingdom investigative com- 
mission 2033 

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 

BLEVE causes 1791 

foam application 1760 

gasohol 1756 

Michigan fire incidents 1719 

rocket fuels 1921 

storage tank fires 1985 

United Kingdom investigative com- 
mission 2033 

COMBUSTIBLE SOLIDS 

metals 1787 

residential building fire loads . . 1865 
solid fuel burning appliance 

testing 1764 

spherical-fuel surfaces 1759 

COMBUSTION (SEE ALSO: 
SMOLDERING 
COMBUSTION) 

boundary thermal constraints 

effect 1771 

coal-oil mixtures 1770 

coal-particle ignition model 1832 

flame-limiting device 1754 

flame plume analysis 1805 

fluidized fuel beds 1755 

fuel-ignition device 1878 

heat release rates 1810 

hydrogen-oxygen-nitrogen 

mixtures 1757 

polymers 1781, 1783 

polyurethane foam 1779 

propane/air mixture 1777 

COMBUSTION PRODUCTS 

gas chromatographic 

determination 1794 

generation 2008, 2015 

soot particle radiation 1765 

COMBUSTION TOXICOLOGY 

animal experiments 2009 

building materials 201 1 

cushioning materials 2014 

DIN 53 436 method 2012 



furnishing materials 201:5 

inhalation chambers 2008, 2015 

nitrogenous species 

determination 1794 

polymers 2007 

COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS 

NYC computer dispatch 

system 1970 

COMPARTMENT FIRES 

basements 1868 

compartmentation vs sprinkler sys- 
tems 1729 

crib-fire test data 1817 

extinguishing effects of water . 1862 
fire performance of insulated 

rooms 1864 

floor/ceiling assemblies testing 1866 

mathematical modeling 1818 

Swedish research 1784 

COMPUTER MODELS 

arson prediction 2000 

extinguishing effects of water . 1862 
wildland fire spread 1815 

COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

HAZFILE 2022 

microcomputer-based fire/gas pro- 
tection system 1840 

microprocessor fire detection ...1851 

NYC dispatch system 1970 

shopping center alarm system . 1842 
sprinkler protection 1857 

CONCRETE 

sprinkler systems for buildings 1857 

CONFERENCES 

American Bar 

Association/arson 1999 

British fire control regulations 1711 

CIB building fire safety 

meeting 1710 

European Conference of Flammabil- 
ity and Fire Retardants 1708 

fire research 1748 

fire safety education 1743 

French fire prevention and protec- 
tion 1846 

human behavior international 

seminar 1712 

international fire statistics 

seminar 2046 

Stonebridge II— Volunteers 1709 

structural fires, US-USSR 

seminar 1867 



84 



Subject Index 



CONGRESSES (SEE: 
CONFERENCES) 

CONSUMER PROTECTION 

furniture flammability survey . 1744 

smoke detectors 1839 

wood-burning appliance risk .. 1725, 

1737 

CORROSION 

corrosion-resistant piping 1885 

COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS 

public vs private fire service . . 1705 

COTTONS 

char formation 1798 

laundering effect on flame retar- 

dants 1799 

weathering effect on flame retar- 

dants 1800 

D 
DEATHS (SEE: FATALITIES) 

DETECTION SYSTEMS 

analog 1907 

architectural design 1838 

effectiveness study 1841 

fire safety for buildings 2020 

flame-detection device .... 1874, 1875 

French centralized 1849 

microcomputer monitoring 1842 

microprocessor fire detection . . . 1851 

offshore platforms 1840 

old people's home 1899 

older urban residential 

buildings 1918 

technological advancements .... 1843 
two-level fire protection 1883 

DETECTORS (SEE ALSO: GAS 
DETECTORS; HEAT 
DETECTORS; IONIZATION 
DETECTORS; 
PHOTOELECTRIC 
DETECTORS; SMOKE 
DETECTORS) 

French conference on fire 

prevention 1846 

ionization and optical testing . . 1763 

DISASTER PLANNING 

electronics plants 1894 

essential elements 2044 

mass evacuation 1986 

wilderness rescue techniques . . . 1972 

DOORS 

fire doors 1881 



EDUCATION (SEE ALSO: 

FIREFIGHTER TRAINING) 

architects, fire safety 1836, 1838 

arson investigation 1988 

firefighter safety 1937 

marketing strategies 1741 

preschoolers televised fire 

safety 1742 

Public Education Assistance Pro- 
gram (PEAP) 1740 

public education ...1736, 1738, 1739, 

1743, 1847 
Seattle soccer stars' fire prevention 

cards 1745 

wood stove use 1737 

EIRE 

Bantry Bay tanker 

explosion 1713, 1727, 1731 

ELDERLY PERSONS 

burn injury survey 2019 

community home detection 

system 1899 

fire protection 1869 

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 

cable fire hazard 1819 

cable heat-release tests 1807 

electrical arcing 1816 

fire protection requirements ....1891 

flame-sensing device 1874, 1875 

recessed lighting 1890 

ELECTRICAL FIRES 

electrical cable protection 1892 

static electricity 1854 

EMERGENCY SERVICES 

paramedic burnout 2017 

wilderness rescue techniques ...1972 

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT 

wildland fires 1889 

EQUIPMENT (SEE ALSO: 

APPARATUS; BREATHING 
APPARATUS; 
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING) 

animal experiments 2009 

breathing apparatus comparative 

testing 1952 

European association 1704 

fire ropes comparison 1967 

fire testing apparatus 1823 

fuel-ignition device 1878 

head-cooling device 1953 

mobile fire prevention training ve- 
hicle 1743 



EUROPE 

alarm manufacturers 

association 1707 

European fire equipment 

association 1704 

fire extinguisher standards 1860 

fire safety standards 2035 

fire service apparatus 1966 

fire testing standards 1821 

flammability testing 1780 

EVACUATION 

forest fire by air 1974 

group home modeling 1903 

hazardous materials spill 1973 

hospital fire 1718 

hotel fire 1717 

mass evacuation planning 1986 

residential fires 1917 

EXPLOSION CONTROL 

tanker inert gas system 1925 

EXPLOSION HAZARDS 

aerosols 1792 

BLEVE 1791 

combustible metals 1787 

ignition testing 1776 

EXPLOSION PREVENTION 

tanker ships 1923 

EXPLOSIONS 

Bantry Bay tanker 1713, 1727 

critical initiation energy 1814 

fire-ball spectrums 1762 

Michigan fire incidents 1719 

offshore drilling rig 1724 

EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS 

fire-ball spectrums 1762 

safe rail transport 2025 

EXTINGUISHANTS 

fluorochemical foams for aircraft 

fires 1852 

foam 1861 

foam effectiveness on fuel 

fires 1853 

fuel fire foams 1760 

liquified natural gas fires 2031 

mineral oil fires 1863 

mineral oil industry 

application 1902 

nitrogen 1757 

ship fires 1920 

soda-acid/carbon dioxide reaction . . 

1880 
water 1855, 1862 



85 



Subject Index 



EXTINGUISHERS (SEE ALSO: 

CARBON DIOXIDE 

EXTINGUISHERS; 

POWDER 

EXTINGUISHERS) 

British standards 2039 

electrical cable protection 1892 

electronic equipment 

protection 1891 

false alarm protection 1879 

French standards 1860 

inert gas 1830 

injection systems 1977 

sprinkler systems 1858, 1859, 

1876, 1877, 1916 

storage facility protection 1896 

two-level fire protection 1883 



FABRIC FLAMMABILITY 

comparison of test methods .... 1827 

curtains 1828 

flame retardant cotton 1798 

weathering effect on flame retar- 
dants 1800 

FABRICS 

fire retardant cotton 1799 

flame-retardant backcoating ....1803 
flammability standards 2036 

FALSE ALARMS 

extinguisher protection device . 1879 
solutions suggested 1848 

FATALITIES 

French fire statistics, 

1970-1979 2048 

mobile homes 1915 

residential fires 1917, 2018 

restaurant fire 1990 

smoke detector effectiveness ....1873 
storage facility fire 1895 

FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF 
GERMANY 

architects fire safety 

education 1836, 1838 

subway station fire 1723 

FILTERS 

air filter fire testing 1790 

flame spread 1789 

FIRE BARRIERS 

fire doors 1881 

fire-stop testing 1882 

older urban residential 

buildings 1918 



FIRE BEHAVIOR 

Australian wall-lining materials 

testing 1820 

cellular flames 1757 

furniture 1768 

heat release rates 1810 

insulated rooms 1864 

modeling 1811, 1818 

polyurethane foam and wood .1779 
wildland fire spread model 1815 

FIRE CAUSES 

aircraft fires 1720 

arson 1996, 1999, 2000 

electrical arcing 1816 

Seattle arson study update 2004 

supermarket fires 1721 

United States research 1746 

FIRE DEATHS (SEE: 
FATALITIES) 

FIRE DYNAMICS 

coal-oil mixtures 1770 

fire-ball spectrums 1762 

flame propagation 1751, 1753 

French research 1749 

laser analysis 1750 

liquid natural gas fires 1809 

material flammability 1780 

mathematical modeling of 

fires 1829 

ozone flames 1752 

FIRE HAZARDS 

aerosols 1792 

aircraft cabin materials 1801 

aluminum roofs 1837 

catalytic converters 1924 

compartment linings and contents 

research 1784 

creostote buildup in chimneys . 1979 

electrical cables 1819 

electronic equipment 1891 

fireworks 1733 

gasohol 1756 

liquid fuels 1760 

mobile home safety standards . 1915 
Northwestern University fire safety 

improvements 1905 

recessed lighting 1890 

residential 1917 

static electricity 1854 

underground garages 1 87 1 

wood 1788 

wood and plastic folding 

chairs 1785 

FIRE INCIDENTS 

abandoned apartment building 1715 
aircraft fires 1720 



Albany petroleum fire 

arson-related 1990, 

Austrian bakery plant 

Bantry Bay tanker 

explosion 1713, 

boat-building plant 

warehouses 1730, 

combustible liquids 

Virginia fatal fire 

German research institute 

German subway train 

high-rise buildings 1722, 1729, 

hospitals 

hotels 1717, 

Iraqi telephone cable factory ... 

Manchester's Woolworth fire ... 

offshore platform explosion 

paper storage facility 

photographic investigation tech- 
niques 

riot fires 

rural fire reporting records .... 

sprinkler failures 

storage tank fire 

supermarkets 

underground parking garage ... 

wood-burning appliances 



1980 
2006 
1975 

1731 

1716 
1984 
1719 
1847 
1726 
1723 
1971 
1718 
1983 
1714 
1728 
1724 
1895 

1951 
1981 
1950 
1856 
1982 
1721 
1871 
1725 



FIRE RESISTANCE 

aircraft cabin materials 1801 

building fire-stop testing 1882 

building structures 1867 

char promotion in PVC 1797 

engineering plastics 1774 

heat-resistant paints 1767 

older urban residential sprinkler 

systems 1919 

structural elements 1870, 1872 

FIRE RETARDANTS 

fabric backcoating 



1803 



FIRE SERVICE 

apparatus performance specification 

guide 1944, 1945, 1946, 

1947, 1948 

arson investigation 2005 

British industrial fire 

protection 1897 

bureaucratic organization manage- 
ment 1931 

Chicago's fire inspector anti- 
corruption program 1965 

combatting false alarms 1848 

county support of volunteer fire 
services 1933 

environmentally controlled wildland 
fires 1889 

European firefighting 

apparatus 1966 



86 



Subject Index 



Federal facility construction 

impact 1926, 1927 

fire safety marketing 

strategies 1741 

flexible station design 1943 

Houston Hazardous Materials 

Team 2034 

industrial fire brigades 1893 

large diameter hose 

effectiveness 1976 

leadership training 1939 

mandatory fitness program 1964 

Minnesota fire safety program 2043 
NYC computer dispatch 

system 1970 

Paris fire brigade history 1934 

personnel problems 1962 

productivity 1929, 1932 

productivity management 1932 

psychological testing of 

applicants 1959 

public education in fire safety . 1743 

public vs private 1705 

reorganization 1706 

rescue personnel reaction time 1940 

ropes 1967 

rural fire incident records 1950 

Seattle soccer stars' fire prevention 

cards 1745 

social responsibilities 1987 

United Kingdom fire protection 

practices 1703 

United Kingdom salvage and loss 

reduction 2045 

volunteers 1709, 1928, 1961 

women firefighters 1963 

FIRE STATIONS 

building design in London 1943 

private fire department 1930 

solar energy use 1942 

FIREFIGHTER EMPLOYMENT 

contract arbitration 1957 

on-the-job problems 1962 

paramedic burnout 2017 

psychological testing of 

applicants .• 1959 

strikes vs arbitration 1956, 1959 

women 1963 

FIREFIGHTER HEALTH 

accident reports 1960 

breathing apparatus standards 1955 

head-cooling device 1953 

injury statistics, 1979 2047 

job safety 1937 

mandatory fitness program 1964 

paramedic burnout 2017 



FIREFIGHTER TRAINING 

dumpster fire hazards 2021 

nuclear power plant firefighting 

guidelines 1908 

offshore platform training 

center 1936 

personal safety measures 1937 

rescue personnel reaction time 1940 

ship fires 1922 

simulated hazardous materials 

spill 1938 

United Kingdom 1939 

volunteers' training manual ....1941 
wildland fires 1935 

FIREFIGHTERS 

on-the-job problems 1962 

volunteers 1928, 1961 

FIREGROUND OPERATIONS 

abandoned apartment building 

fire 1715 

aerial firefighting 1978 

Austrian bakery plant fire 1975 

boat-building plant fire 1716 

chimney fires 1979 

chlorine presence 2026 

dumpster fires 2021 

fire control during riots 1981 

firefighter safety 1937 

flammable liquid tank fires 1985 

foam application in fuel fires . . 1760 

gasohol 1756 

German subway station fire 1723 

hazardous materials spills 2032 

high-rise fires 1722, 1971 

high-rise fire response 1971 

hotel fire 1983 

large diameter hoses 1976 

liquified natural gas fires 2031 

mineral oil fires 1863 

Montreal hospital fire 1718 

multi-family frame dwellings ..1911 

sea-water supply system 1884 

storage tank fire 1982 

warehouse fire 1984 

wildland fires 1889 

FLAME PROPERTIES 

burning spherical-fuel surfaces 1759 

ceilings 1806 

cellular flames 1757 

electrically excited atoms 1812 

ion formation 1761 

laminar flames 1808 

mathematical modeling 1831 

ozone flames 1752 

plume analysis 1805 



FLAME RETARDANTS 

automatic soda-acid 

extinguishers 1880 

carbon monoxide production 

effect 1786 

cotton 1798 

laundering effect 1799 

research 1708 

thermoplastics 1802 

toxicity effect j 2010 

weathering effect j 1800 

FLAME SPREAD 

air filters 1789 

air-fuel mixtures 1753 

Austrian bakery plant fire 1975 

basement fires 1868 

boundary thermal constraint ...1771 

ceilings 1806 

computer simulation 1815 

electrical cable protection 1892 

laser analysis 1750 

mathematical model 1751 

propagation in tubes 1778 

turbulent gas flame testing ....1813 
water + additives extinguishing . 1758 

FLAMMABILITY (SEE ALSO: 
FABRIC FLAMMABILITY) 

Australian grassland 1887 

combustible metals 1787 

materials research 1708 

non-residential furniture 

regulations 1906 

residential buildings 1865 

FLAMMABILITY RATINGS 

curtain fabrics 1828 

floor/ceiling fire performance ..1866 
textiles 1827, 2036 

FLAMMABILITY TESTING 

basement rooms 1868 

engineering plastics 1774 

European 1780 

fabrics 1827 

fire-safe storage of hazardous mate- 
rials 2027 

flame propagation in tubes 1778 

furniture 1782 

polymers 1781, 1783 

polyurethane foam 1772 

validity relative to fire safety . 1825 
wood and plastic furniture .... 1785, 

1817 

FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (SEE: 
COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS) 

FLORIDA 

1979 arson legislation 1734 



87 



Subject Index 



Daytona Beach high-rise fire .1722 
Miami riot fires 1981 

FOAM GENERATORS 

aircraft fires 1852 

foam types 1861 

mineral oil fires 1863 

FOAMED PLASTICS (SEE: 
CELLULAR PLASSTICS) 

FOREST FIRES (SEE: 
WILDLAND FIRES) 

FRANCE 

alcohol storage study 2029 

centralized detection systems . . 1849 

fire detection reports 1846 

fire extinguisher standards 1860 

fire research 1749 

fire statistics, 1970-1979 2048 

Paris fire brigade history 1934 

sprinkler systems 1856, 2028 

water + additives fire 

extinguishing 1758 

FUEL FIRES 

aircraft 1720 

Albany petroleum fire 1980 

coal-particle ignition model 1832 

extinction by water + additives . 1758 

flame-limiting device 1754 

flame propagation 1753 

flame-sensing device 1874, 1875 

foam extinguishant 

effectiveness 1853 

gasohol 1756 

ignition device 1878 

Italian radiative heat transfer 

tests 1766 

laser analysis 1750 

liquified natural gas 2031 

Michigan fire incidents 1719 

offshore platform explosion 1724 

rocket fuel fire 1921 

spherical surfaces 1759 

FURNACES 

flame-sensing device 1874, 1875 

fluidized fuel-bed combustors . . . 1755 
fuel-ignition device 1878 

FURNITURE 

aircraft cabin fires 1720 

consumer survey on furniture flam- 

mability 1744 

fire studies review 1782 

fire testing 1768 

non-residential flammability regula- 
tions 1906 

off-gases from cushioning 

materials 2014 



GARAGES 

underground fire hazards 1871 

GAS DETECTORS 

improvements 1843 

GAS FIRES (SEE: FUEL 
FIRES) 

GASES (SEE ALSO: TOXIC 
GASES) 

chemical tanker protection 1920 

controlled combustion 

modeling 1777 

electronics plant hazards 1894 

flame properties 1808 

hydrogen-oxygen-nitrogen 

mixtures 1757 

inert pressurant distribution . . . 1830 
surface ignition of explosives . . 1776 

tanker inert gas system 1925 

turbulent flame acceleration 

testing 1813 

GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES 

anti-arson programs 1993, 1996, 

1999 

arson investigation 2005 

computerized wildfire information 
collecting 1949 

county support of volunteer fire 
services 1933 

Federally supported fire 

research 1748 

fire service productivity 1932 

fire service reorganization 1706 

interaction on juvenile arsonist 
problems 1987 

nuclear power plant fire protection 
schedules 1909 

OSHA fire exit safety 

regulations 1910 

proposed British fire control stan- 
dards 1711 

Public Education Assistance Pro- 
gram (PEAP) 1740 

U.S. fire prevention research .. 1746 



H 



HANDBOOKS 

apparatus performance specification 

guide 1944, 1945, 1946, 

1947, 1948 

HANDICAPPED PERSONS 

evacuation model 1903 



HAZARDOUS CARGOES 

explosives 2025 

identification 2023 

tanker ships 1923 

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 

building materials toxicity 2011 

chlorine 2026 

electronics plant 1894 

fire-safe storage techniques 2027 

fireworks 1733 

handling equipment protection 2030 
HAZFILE Computer System ...2022 

Houston Haz-Mat team 2034 

liquid fuels 1760 

mass evacuation planning 1986 

phosphorous trichloride 1973 

precautionary measures 2032 

safe rail transport 2024 

simulation exercise 1938 

transportation 1921, 2024 

United Kingdom investigative com- 
mission 2033 

HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION 

DOT vs NFPA systems 2023 

dumpsters 2021 

HEALTH HAZARDS 

beards/breathing apparatus .... 1955 

chlorine 2026 

closed-circuit oxygen breathing ap- 
paratus 1954 

extinguishant protection 1879 

nuclear power plant firefighting 
guidelines 1908 

HEAT DETECTORS 

characteristics 1850 

infrared forest fire locators 1886 

HEATING SYSTEMS (SEE 
ALSO: FURNACES) 

fluidized fuel-bed combustors ...1755 

solar energy use 1942 

solid fuel burning appliance 

testing 1764 

wood-burning appliances 1725, 

1737, 1912, 1913 

HELICOPTERS 

aerial firefighting 1978 

HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS 

apartment fire 1722 

New York City fire 1729 

office building fire 1971 

smoke vent design 1833 

HOLLAND 

old people's home detection 

system 1899 



88 



Subject Index 



HOSES 

hydraulic pressure tests .... 
large diameter effectiveness 
pressure-drop testing 



1968 
1976 
1969 



HOSPITALS 

Montreal fire 1718 

Rhode Island burn injury 

survey 2019 

smoke detectors 1904 

HOTELS 

24-death fire 1717 

island hotel fire 1983 

HUMAN BEHAVIOR 

arson 1987, 1991, 1997 

combatting false alarms 1848 

firesetter profile 2002, 2003 

international seminar 1712 

juvenile firesetters 1989 

multi-family dwelling fire 1911 

paramedic burnout 2017 

smoke detector relationship 1873 



I 



IGNITION HAZARDS 

explosives 1776 

IGNITION INHIBITORS 

fabric flame-retardant 

backcoating 1803 

IGNITION MODELS 

coal flames 1832 

critical initiation energy 1814 

ILLINOIS 

Chicago's fire inspector anti- 
corruption program 1965 

Elk Grove Private Fire 

Department 1930 

Northwestern University fire safety 
improvements 1905 

INDUSTRIAL PREMISES 

boat-building plant fire 1716 

British fire safety regulations . 1898 

bulk storage plant fires 1719 

Canadian refinery 1901 

construction with flammable mate- 
rials 1714 

electronics plant hazards 1894 

equipment fire protection 2030 

fire protection research 1902 

firefighting 1893, 1897 

French fire statistics, 

1970-1979 2048 

organizational fire protection ..1900 
proposed British regulations ....1711 



INFORMATION SYSTEMS 

arson 1993, 2000 

HAZFILE 2022 

INHALATION TOXICOLOGY 

animal experiments 2009 

comparative measurements 2012 

generation of combustion 

products 2008, 2015 

INSPECTION 

Chicago's anti-corruption 

program 1965 

fire safety exists 1910 

INSULATION (SEE ALSO: 
THERMAL INSULATION) 

electrical wiring 1816 

fire safety effects 1890 

foamed plastic fire tests 1824 

soundproofed-room sprinkler 

system 1857 

INSURANCE 

arson investigation 2001, 2005 

arson prevention 1995, 2040 

arson reporting — immunity legisla- 
tion 1992 

building replacement costs 2041 

reduction for residential sprinkler 
system 1914 

INTUMESCENT MATERIALS 

testing 1769 

INVESTIGATION 

arson 1988, 1998, 2001 

firesetter profile 2003 

Manchester's Woolworth fire ...1728 
photographic techniques 1951 

IONIZATION 

laser excitation of atoms 1812 

IONIZATION DETECTORS 

electrical charge transport 

theory 1761 

performance evaluation 1839 

IOWA 

wildland fire reporting 1949 

IRAQ 

telephone cable factory fire ....1714 

ITALY 

radiative heat transfer tests . . . 1766 



KANSAS 

Lawrence mandatory fitness pro- 
gram 1964 



LEGISLATION 

arson 1992, 1994, 1995, 

2001, 2005, 2040 
British fire protection .... 1703, 1735 

building fire safety 1834 

compulsory arbitration 1957 

fireworks 1733 

Florida's 1979 arson law 1734 

Manchester's Woolworth fire after- 
math 1728 

municipal sprinkler laws 1732 

smoke detectors 1847 

LIABILITIES 

home sprinkler system manufactur- 
er 1914 

LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS 

fire modeling 1809 

safe handling techniques 2031 

LOSS REDUCTION 

Canadian refinery 1901 

electronic equipment 

protection 1891 

fire prevention program 1736 

municipal sprinkler laws 1732 

shipboard fires 1922 

United Kingdom fire service . . . 2045 

LOSSES 

French fire statistics, 

1970-1979 2048 

international statistics value . . . 2046 



M 



MANAGEMENT 

arbitration of grievances 1957 

Chicago's anti-corruption 

program 1965 

county support of volunteer fire 

services 1933 

fire safety self-regulation 1898 

fire service bureaucracy 1931 

fire service productivity . 1929, 1932 
organizational fire protection . . 1900 

Paris fire brigade history 1934 

private fire department 1930 

psychological testing of 

applicants 1959 

public vs private fire 

protection 1705 

strikes vs arbitration 1956, 1958 

volunteers 1928, 1941 

MASS TRANSPORTATION 

German subway station fire ....1723 



89 



Subject Index 



MASSACHUSETTS 

Boston anti-arson program 2000 

Somerville's phosphorous trichloride 
spill 1973 

MATERIALS (SEE ALSO: 

BUILDING MATERIALS; 

CELLULOSIC MATERIALS; 

COTTONS; INSULATION; 

INTUMESCENT 

MATERIALS; PLASTICS; 

UPHOLSTERY 

MATERIALS; WOOD) 

extinguishing foams 1861 

flammability research 1708 

MATERIALS TESTING 

air filters 1789, 1790 

building materials toxicity 201 1 

carbon monoxide production ...1786 

combustible wall linings 1820 

curtains 1828 

flame and smoke retardant 

thermoplastics 1802 

flame retardant effects on 

toxicity 2010 

floor/ceiling assemblies 1866 

foamed plastic insulation 1824 

furniture 1768 

heat release rates 1810 

international standardardization of 

fire tests 1821 

intumescent coatings 1769 

Manchester's Woolworth fire furni- 
ture 1728 

off-gases toxicity 2013 

plastics fire test apparatus 1823 

polymers 1781 

polyurethane foams 1772, 1779 

smoke generation 1796 

sprayed-on structural 

fireproofing 1870 

validity relative to fire safety . 1825 
wood 1775, 1788 

MATHEMATICAL MODELS 

boundary thermal constraint on 
planar premixed-flame/wall 

interaction 1771 

burning spherical-fuel surfaces 1759 

compartment fires 1818 

electrical cable fire hazard predic- 
tion 1819 

electrical cable heat-release 

tests 1807 

fire behavior 1811, 1829 

flame lengths 1806 

flame propagation 1753 

laminar flames 1808, 1831 



ozone flames 1752 

structural fire endurance 1867 

surface ignition of explosives and 

propellants 1776 

thermal barrier performance ...2025 
turbulent combustion 1777 

METALS 

aluminum roofing material 1837 

combustible metals 1787 

MEETINGS (SEE: 
CONFERENCES) 

MENTALLY-IMPAIRED 
PERSONS (SEE: 
HANDICAPPED PERSONS) 

MICHIGAN 

Pittsville Township bulk storage 
plant fires 1719 

MINES 

gold mine fire detection 

system 1907 

polyurethane foam lined 

airways 1779 

MINNESOTA 

fire safety promotion 2043 

MOBILE HOMES 

fire and live loads survey 1865 

fire protection study 1915 

MODELS (SEE ALSO: 

COMPUTER MODELS; 

IGNITION MODELS; 

MATHEMATICAL 

MODELS) 

carbon monoxide exposure 2016 

French fire research 1749 

group home evacuation 1903 

inert gas distribution 1830 

liquid natural gas fires 1809 

smoke production 1822 



N 



NATIONAL BUREAU OF 
STANDARDS 

electrical cable fire hazard 

modeling 1819 

fire research 1746, 1748 

Soviet research on fire safety of 

buildings 1747 

toxicological assessment of inhaled 

combustion products 2007 

wood-burning appliance safety . 1913 



NATIONAL FIRE 
PROTECTION 
ASSOCIATION 

fire prevention research 1746 

Fire Safety Code 1910 

hazardous materials 

identification 2023 

NEW JERSEY 

24-death hotel fire 1717 

NEW YORK STATE 

Albany oil tank fire 1980 

NYC computer dispatch 

system 1970 

NYC high-rise fire 1971 

Westvaco Building fire 1729 

NUCLEAR REACTORS 

fire protection schedules 1909 

NURSING HOMES 

fire protection for the elderly . 1869 
smoke detectors 1904 

o 

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY 

(SEE ALSO: FIREFIGHTER 
HEALTH) 

firefighter accidents 1960 

OFFICE BUILDINGS 

high-rise fire incident 197 1 

OFFSHORE PLATFORMS 

Bantry Bay explosion 1731 

explosion investigation 1724 

fire and gas protection system 1840 
fire detection and prevention sys- 
tems 1843 

training center 1936 

P 

PAINTS 

heat resistant 1767 

PATENTS 

adjustable sprinkler assembly . . 1876 
automatic soda-acid 

extinguishers 1880 

electrical cable protection 

device 1892 

extinguishing-agent injection 

system 1977 

extinguisher protection device . 1879 

flame-limiting device 1754 

flame-sensing device 1874, 1875 

fluidized fuel-bed combustors ...1755 
fuel-ignition device 1878 



90 



Subject Index 



head-cooling device 1953 

multi-outlet sprinkler head 1877 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Upper St. Clair volunteers' training 
manual 1941 

PERSONNEL (SEE ALSO: 
FIREFIGHTERS) 

arbitration of disputes 1956 

arbitration of grievances 1957 

fire service bureaucracy 1931 

fire service productivity 1932 

strikes vs arbitration of 

grievances 1956, 1957, 1958 

volunteers 1928, 1961 

volunteer utilization 1961 

women firefighters 1963 

PETROLEUM INDUSTRY 

Albany oil tank fire 1980 

Canadian refinery 1901 



PHOTOELECTRIC 
DETECTORS 

performance evaluation 



1839 



PLANNING (SEE ALSO: 
DISASTER PLANNING) 

county support of volunteer fire 

services 1933 

fire protection services 1705 

industrial fire brigades 1893 

mutual aid 1990 

nuclear power plant firefighting 

guidelines 1908 

public fire education program . 1738 

rocket fuel shipments 1921 

ship fires 1922 

PLASTICS 

fire testing apparatus 1823 

flame and smoke retardants . . . 1802 

furniture fire testing 1768 

molded chair flammability 1785 

polyetherimide fire 

performance 1774 

PVC pyrolysis 1797 

POLYMERS 

combustion properties 1781 

degradation due to combustion 1783 
rising vs fixed temperature toxicity 
testing 1826 

POLYURETHANE FOAMS 

combustion tests 1779 

ignition tests 1772 

POWDER EXTINGUISHERS 

aircraft fires 1852 



POWER PLANTS 

nuclear plant fire protection ...1909 

PREVENTION 

analytical techniques 1888 

arson 1992, 1993, 1995, 1996, 

1999, 2000, 2006 

British regulations 1735 

Chicago's fire inspector anti- 
corruption program 1965 

Florida's 1979 arson law 1734 

French conference reports 1846 

heat detectors 1850 

ionization and optical detectors test- 
ing 1763 

low-cost home sprinkler 

systems 1914 

Minnesota fire safety program 2043 
new materials for aircraft 

cabins 1801 

older urban residences 1919 

organizational fire protection . . 1900 

piping corrosion 1885 

Seattle soccer stars' fire prevention 

cards 1745 

static electricity hazards 1854 

tanker inert gas system 1727 

tanker ship fires 1923 

volunteer personnel role 1961 

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING 

head-cooling device 1953 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS 

French fire statistics, 

1970-1979 2048 



PYROLYSIS 

flours and starches 1773 

PVC char formation 1797 

radiant pyrolysis of polymers . . 1783 
rising vs fixed temperature pro- 
grams 1826 

R 

RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER 

soot particles 1765 

RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS 

fire-safe storage techniques 2027 

RAILROADS 

hazardous materials spill 1973 

hazardous materials 

transport 2024, 2025 

simulated hazardous materials 

spill 1938 

REPORTING 

Iowa wildfires 1949 

rural fires 1950 



RESCUE 

reduced reaction time 1940 

wilderness techniques 1972 

RESEARCH 

Australian grassland 

flammability 1887 

building fire safety 1710 

fire safety conferences 1748 

firesetter profile 2002 

French fire modeling 1749 

materials flammability and flame 

retardants 1708 

mineral oil industry fire 

protection 1902 

non-residential furniture flammabil- 
ity 1906 

older residential building fire pro- 
tection 1918 

smoke problems in building 

fires 1822 

Soviet Union building fire predic- 
tion 1747 

Swedish compartment fire 

studies 1784 

toxic hazards in fires 1795 

United States fire prevention . . 1746 

RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 
(SEE ALSO: MOBILE 
HOMES) 

chimney fires 1979 

chlorine presence 2026 

detection system effectiveness ..1841 

fatalities 1917, 2018 

fire and live loads survey 1865 

fire fatalities 2018 

floor/ceiling fire performance ..1866 
multi-family frame dwelling 

tactics .' 1911 

older building fire protection .. 1918 

smoke detector evaluation 1839 

sprinkler systems . 1914, 1916, 1919 
wood-burning appliance 

safety 1912, 1913 

REVIEWS 

arson legal cases .. 1991, 1997, 1998 

current fire research 1748 

firefighters' problems 1962 

furniture fire studies 1782 

liquid natural gas fire models . 1809 
NASA-USF toxicity screening . 2010 
United Kingdom structural elements 

report 1872 

water in fire suppression 1855 

RHODE ISLAND 

burn injury survey 2019 



91 



Subject Index 



RISK MANAGEMENT 

disaster planning element 2044 

fire loss management 2042 

industrial fire brigades 18IK5 

FtOOFS 

aluminum 1837 

ROOM FIRES (SEE: 

COMPARTMENT FIRES) 

RURAL AREAS 

Iowa wildland fire reports 1949 

s 

SAFETY CONTROLS 

buildings 1834, 1835 

exit availability 1910 

explosive materials transport . . 2025 

fire doors 1881 

nuclear power plant 1909 

two-level fire protection for 

buildings 1883 

SALVAGE 

United Kingdom fire service . . . 2045 

SCHOOLS 

upgraded fire protection 1905 

SCOTLAND 

Montrose training center 1936 

SEMINARS (SEE: 
CONFERENCES) 

SENIOR CITIZENS (SEE: 
ELDERLY PERSONS) 

SHIPPING 

Bantry Bay tanker 

disaster 1713, 1731 

rocket fuels 1921 

SHIPS 

Bantry Bay tanker explosion . . 1727 

fire safety 1920, 1922 

tanker inert gas system 1925 

tanker ship fires 1923 

SHOPPING CENTERS 

fire prevention displays 1739 

microcomputer alarm systems . 1842 

SMOKE (SEE ALSO: 
AEROSOLS) 

burning air filters 1790 

measurement tests 1796 

production in building fires .... 1822 
smoke retardant 

thermoplastics 1802 

smoke suppressant 

bibliography 1793 



SMOKE CONTROL 

smoke suppressant 

bibliography 1793 

vents in multistory buildings ..1833 

SMOKE DETECTORS 

county public education 

project 1847 

effectiveness study 1841 

health care facilities 1904 

mobile home safety 1915 

performance evaluation 1839 

reliability evaluation 1873 

systems concept 1845 

testing specifications 1844 

SMOLDERING COMBUSTION 

cellulosic insulation 1804 

flours and starches 1773 

polyurethane foams 1772 

SOUTH AFRICA 

gold mine fire detection 

system 1907 

SPAIN 

Gibraltar's sea-water supply 

system 1884 

SPILLS 

hazardous materials 2032 

Houston Hazardous Materials 

Team 2034 

simulated hazardous materials exer- 
cise 1938 

SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

adjustable assembly 1876 

British standards 2038 

compared to compartmentation 1729 

controversial installations 1857 

corrosion-resistant piping 1885 

failures in France and 

Germany 1856 

fire protection of storage 

facilities 1896 

improvements 1843 

legislation 1732 

low-cost home systems 1914 

multi-outlet sprinkler head 1877 

new French regulations 2028 

older urban residential 

buildings 1918, 1919 

on-off type 1858 

residential 1916 

wet-pipe vs dry-pipe 1859 

STAIRWELLS 

older urban residential sprinkler 
systems 1919 



STANDARDS 

architects fire safety education 1836 

breathing apparatus 1955 

British sprinkler systems 2038 

EUROFEU 1704 

fire risk assessment 2042 

international fire safety 

tests 1821, 2035 

international units of 

measurements 2037 

mineral oil industry fire 

protection 1902 

on-off sprinkler systems 

testing 1858 

portable extinguishers 2039 

proposed British fire control ...1711 

smoke detector tests 1844 

textile flammability 2036 

STATISTICS 

arson 1994 

British warehouse fires 1730 

fire protection for the elderly . 1869 

firefighter injuries, 1979 2047 

furniture flammability survey . 1744 
international fire statistics 

seminar 2046 

residential fire fatalities 2018 

United States arson fires 2006 

STORAGE 

combusible metals 1787 

fire protection considerations . . 1896 

STORAGE HAZARDS 

alcohol 2029 

paper products 1895 

STORAGE TANKS 

fire incident 1982 

fireground operations 1985 

hazardous materials fire safety 2027 

Michigan fire incidents 1719 

tanker ships 1923 

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 
(SEE ALSO: CEILINGS; 
DOORS; ROOFS; 
STAIRWELLS) 

building fire-stop testing 1882 

chimney fires 1979 

fire doors 1881 

fire safety codes 2020 

floor/ceiling assemblies testing 1866 
intumescent material coatings . 1769 

sprayed-on fireproofing 1870 

United Kingdom requirements . 1872 

SWEDEN 

compartment fire research 1784 



92 



Subject Index 



SYMPOSIA (SEE: 
CONFERENCES) 

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS 

HAZFILE 2022 

smoke detectors 1845 

T 

TACTICS (SEE: FIREGROUND 
OPERATIONS) 

TELEVISION 

preschooler fire safety 1742 

TESTING (SEE ALSO: 

FLAMMABILITY TESTING; 
MATERIALS TESTING) 

breathing apparatus 

comparisons 1952 

building fire-stops 1882 

burning spherical-fuel surfaces 1759 
catalytic converter fire 

hazards 1924 

cellulosic insulation 1804 

closed-circuit SCBA 1954 

coal-oil mixture combustion .... 1770 

coal-particle ignition model 1832 

combustion aerosols 1763 

electrical charge transport 

theory 1761 

extinguishers 1860 

flour and starch smolder character- 
istics 1773 

foam extinguishants 

comparison 1853 

hydraulic pressure-drop in fire 

hoses 1968, 1969 

impact ignition model 1814 

International Fire Safety 

Standards 2035 

international system of units . . 2037 
Italian radiative heat transfer . 1766 
laser-excited atoms in flames . . 1812 
nitrogenous species in combustion 

products 1794 

on-off sprinkler systems 1858 

planar premixed-flame/wall 

interaction 1771 

polymer fire safety 2007 

psychological testing of firefighter 

applicants 1959 

recessed lighting fire hazard ... 1890 
residential sprinkler systems ...1916 

smoke detector standards 1844 

solid fuel burning appliances . . 1764 
thermal radiation of soot 

particles 1765 

toxic hazard test methods 1795 



turbulent gas flame 

acceleration 1813 

wet-pipe vs dry-pipe sprinklers 1859 
wood-burning appliances 1912 

TEXAS 

hotel fire 1983 

Houston Hazardous Materials 

Team 2034 

THERMAL INSULATION 

room fire effect 1864 

smoke generation 1796 

smolder characteristics 1804 

TOXIC GASES 

chlorine 2026 

cushioning materials 2014 

furnishing materials 2013 

hazard measurements 1795 

phosphorous trichloride 1973 

polymers 2007 

TOXICITY SCREENING 

carbon monoxide production . . . 1786 

comparative measurements 2012 

flame retardants effects 2010 

off-gases from furnishing 

materials 2013 

rising vs fixed temperature pro- 
grams 1826 

TRAINING (SEE ALSO: 
EDUCATION; 
FIREFIGHTER TRAINING) 

hazardous materials spills 2032 

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF 
HOUSING AND URBAN 
DEVELOPMENT 

mobile home construction and safe- 
ty standard 1915 

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF 
TRANSPORTATION 

hazardous materials 

identification 2023 

U.S. FIRE ADMINISTRATION 

mobile fire safety study 1915 

u 

UNION OF SOVIET 

SOCIALISTS REPUBLIC 

building fire safety research ...1747 

flame propagation tests 1778 

structural fire safety, joint 

seminar 1867 

UNITED KINGDOM 

arson case 1998 



building insurance levels 2041 

fire prevention legislation 1735 

fire protection practices . 1703, 1869 
fire safety regulations ... 1711, 1898 
fire service leadership training 1939 
hazardous materials investigative 

commission 2033 

human behavior international 

seminar 1712 

industrial firefighting needs .... 1897 
intumescent materials testing . 1769 
Lincolnshire fire prevention pro- 
gram 1736 

London fire station design 1943 

Manchester's Wool worth fire ...1728 
offshore platform fire protection 

systems 1843 

portable extinguisher 

standards 2039 

public education programs 1743 

residential fire fatalities 2018 

salvage and loss reduction 2045 

shopping center microcomputer 

alarm system 1842 

sprinkler system standards 2038 

structural element 

requirements 1872 

supermarket fires 1721 

tanker inert gas system 1925 

toxicity research 1795 

warehouse fires 1730 

UNITED STATES 

firefighter injury statistics, 

1979 2047 

UNITED STATES FIRE 
ADMINISTRATION 

volunteers conference 1709 

UPHOLSTERY MATERIALS 

fabric flame-retardant 

backcoating 1803 

fire testing 1768 



VEHICLES (SEE ALSO: 
AUTOMOBILES) 

hazardous materials lifting cart pro- 
tection 2030 

VIRGINIA 

Harrisonburg restaurant arson 

fire 1990 



w 



WAREHOUSES 

fire incidents 



1730, 1984 



93 



94 

•U.S. GOVERNMENT P RINTING OFFICE : 1982 0-365-067/432 



Subject Index 



fire protection considerations .. 1896 

WASHINGTON STATE 

Bellingham boat-building plant 

fire 1716 

Federal funds for Silverdale fire de- 
partment 1926, 1927 

Kent County public education pro- 
gram 1739 

Seattle arson study update 2004 

Seattle soccer stars' fire prevention 
cards 1745 

Spokane Fire Department attack on 
wood stove fires 1737 

WATER SUPPLIES 

corrosion-resistant piping 1885 

Gibraltar's sea-water supply 

system 1884 

telephone cable factory fire ....1714 

WETTING AGENTS 

fire extinguishment by wa- 
ter + additives 1758 

WILDLAND FIRES 

Australian grassland 1887 

fire incident records 1950 

fire prevention analysis 1888 

fire spread model 1815 

firefighter training 1935 

fireground operations 1974 

infrared heat detectors 1886 

management 1889 

WOOD 

fire effect on strength 1775 

fire hazard testing 1788 

rising vs fixed temperature toxicity 

testing 1826 

solid fuel burning appliance 

testing 1764 

stacked chairs flammability ....1785 

wood-burning appliances 1725, 

1912, 1913 






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